A Problem in Focus: Towards Centenary of the All-Russian Museum Conference of 1919

  Sundieva A.A. The Interpretation of the All-Russian Museum Conference of 1919 — 5 (Rus.)

Sundieva, Anneta Alfredovna — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor, the Russian State University for the Humanities, Russia, Moscow,

The focus of the article is All-Russian Museum Conference of 1919 and its interpretation in modern literature. The article lists the main publications on the conference. It is noted that there is a lack of publication of conference materials. The information incompleteness leaves a room for superficial and biased interpretations. Penetrating into educational literature and popular Internet resources, politicized and emotionally colored assessments impede the formation of historicism of thinking, the most important professional competence of a museum specialist. Persisting stamps that do not reveal the essence of the event diminish its significance. The conference is a bright page of museum history. It was an attempt to unite the authorities and the professional community to solve an innovative plan for museum construction in the
Key words: museology, museum conference of 1919, history of museum studies, the
principle of historicism, academic training of museum specialists.

 Hookk D.Yu. The Origins of Russian Museum Work: From the Archive of the State Hermitage  12 (Rus.)

Hookk, Daria Yurievna — PhD in Philology, Senior Research Fellow, the State Hermitage, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg,

The First conference on museum work took place in Petrograd 100 years ago. The time
and real circumstances of the professional forum turned into abstraction, that’s why renovation of them is so important. The information sources of the research are the journals of the Hermitage Council and newspapers of the period 1917–1919th. All data collected together give a vivid illustration of the events of the period, not so thoroughly covered in the literature on museum work. The point of meeting — Malachite room at the Palace of Arts (the Winter Palace) — was not random choice. While the main discussion of the session concerned all the museums of the country, the Hermitage museum prepared a special exhibition for the opening sent its own delegate. The concept of museum work did not appeared suddenly, it was based on experience of the previous professional meetings on museums and cultural heritage at that time named “archaeological”. However at the period 1918–1919th the new conditions resulted in a total registration of the collections, unified form and procedure for the museum documentation. The revealed difficulties still continue to appear again during the implementation of the computerized forms of registration. In this context the complex study of the decision taken at that difficult time, the various positions and reasons of the museum personal are necessary as well as analysis of the fundamental museum principles, which continue to be actual and obligatory now-a-day being the result of professional knowledge, skills and civic courage of the museum staff.
Key words: Hermitage Council, protocols of meetings, registration, museum work, professionalism.

 Elts E.E. The Emergence of Soviet Museum System and Russian-French Links  22 (Rus.)

Elts, Elena Eduardovna — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor, Saint-
Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article deals with forms of Russian-French cooperation related to the emergence of
Soviet agencies for the protection of historical and cultural monuments. Special emphasis has been placed on the contacts in the artistic field, problem of projecting an image of Soviet museum system in French society. Consideration is being given to the question of the possible learning from best museum practices of France and the USSR. Informing the foreign public of achievements of Soviet state in cultural heritage protection is considered as one of the objectives outlined by the Soviet cultural leaders. Under the break in diplomatic relations, that makes this task difficult, French communist edition “L’Humanité” became the promoter of the Soviet museum policy. The essential sources of information were reports, statements and memoirs of Russian cultural figures chaired the work of Artistic and Historical commissions, who had emigrated to France. Despite the single source of information in the first half of the 1920s a range of views had been expressed concerning the fate of cultural heritage of Russian Empire. The article defines the components of projecting image; the reports on the Soviet
museums in the French press which provoked a public outcry in the 1920s, are analyzed.
Key words: Russian-French links, cultural heritage, Soviet museums, museum policy,
image building.

 Borovkova N.V. The Mining Museum in Petrograd–Leningrad
in the Early Soviet Years (1917–1930th) 
— 31 (Rus.)

Borovkova, Natalia Valerievna — Candidate of Science in Art History, Senior Research
Fellow, the Mining Museum of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia,

The article is dedicated to the important, tragic and least-studied pages of the recent history of one of the oldest museums in St. Petersburg — the Mining Museum of the St. Petersburg Mining University. The unpublished archival materials are analyzed in this article. The difficulties of returning and preserving values during the First World War and the civil war are described. The problems of transferring nationalized private collections and preserving property from the church of the Mining Institute are an important part of the publication. The history of the Mining Museum from the First Museum Conference of 1919 in Petrograd to the First Museum Congress of 1930 is considered in detail. Exposure and funds of the Mining Museum have changed significantly in a short time. The author paid special attention to the events of 1934–1937. At this time, a plan was prepared for the global reorganization of the entire network of natural science museums in Leningrad. Its implementation could lead to the complete loss of unique museum complexes. Mining Museum could not escape the influence of time. He has been turned from training hub at the center of political promotion.
Key words: the Mining Museum, the St. Petersburg Mining University, evacuation, nationalization, museum work.


 Solomakha E.Yu. The Sales of Paintingsfrom the Collection of the State Hermitage on European Auctions in 1928–1931 — 42 (Rus.)

Solomakha, Elena Yurievna — the Deputy Head of the Manuscripts and Documents Department, the State Hermitage, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

During the sale of art objects from Soviet museum collections abroad by the “Antikvariat” office in 1928–1933, a huge number of works, including paintings, had left the Hermitage. Most of them were sold at auctions in Europe. Until recently, only rare European auctions involving paintings and other objects of art from the Hermitage were known, since the origin of the lots put up for auction was almost never indicated in auction catalogs. Some such sales were able to be identified because the Hermitage Library has kept the catalogs of European auctions from 1928 to 1935 from the “Antikvariat”. All art objects transferred to the auctions by “Antikvariat” are marked in each of them with inventory numbers. In those catalogs there are handwritten notes about the initial assessment and the amount received for each item, as well as notes about those that could not be sold. In addition, in some catalogs, the typewritten reports of the “Antikvariat” employee on the sales process were kept. As a result, it was possible to compare inventory numbers with numbers in the acts of issuance of the art objects from the Hermitage to “Antikvariat”, identify paintings, draw up a list of auctions in which they exhibited, and make a certain analysis of the financial side of sales.
Key words: sale, painting, auction, “Antikvariat”, the State Hermitage museum.

 Korovina V.V., Dolgova E.M., Vershina V.S. Visitors’ Perception of the Application of Interactive Technologies in Museums — 61 (Rus.)

Korovina, Valeriia Vyacheslavovna — Undergraduate Student, the National Research University “Higher school of Economics”, Russian Federation, Moscow,;
Dolgova, Ekaterina Mikhailovna — Undergraduate Student, the National Research University “Higher school of Economics”, Russian Federation, Moscow,;
Vershina Viktoriia Sergeevna — Undergraduate Student, the National Research University “Higher school of Economics”, Russian Federation, Moscow,

The article presents the results of the sociological research, the purpose of which was to identify visitors’ perception of interactive technologies in museums in case of Moscow and Moscow region residents, who visit museums at least once a year. The data collected by means of the internet survey was analyzed in SPSS program. Namely, there was observed the impact on visitors’ perception of interactive technologies in museums of such concepts as sociodemographic characteristics of museum visitors, the factors of the application of interactive technologies in museums (the utility factor, the convenience factor and the entertainment factor of the use of interactive technologies in museums), the experience of visitors’ interaction with various types of interactive technologies (for instance, interactive touch kiosks; multiprojections;
mobile applications based on QR codes; interactive books; interactive walls; virtual
reality glasses ; multimedia layouts with augmented reality and interactive robots). Also,
there has been considered how the visitors’ perception of interactive technologies in museums depends on the way of engagement with interactive technologies in the museum (visual, auditory, communicative, kinesthetic forms of interaction with interactive objects). The article draws attention to the most interesting relationships between the concepts presented above and visitors’ perception of the interactive technologies’ application in museums. This information can be useful both for museum sociologists and for museum workers who create new museum exhibitions.
Key words: interactive technologies, museum, interactive museum, visitor, interaction,
interactivity, multimedia.

  Spiridonova E.K. A Historical Note on the Corporate Museum of Lengiprotrans JSC — 69 (Rus.)

Spiridonova, Ekaterina Konstantinovna — Candidate of Science in History, Joint-stock
company for survey and design of transport construction objects Lengiprotrans (Lengiprotrans JSC), Russia, Saint-Petersburg,

This scientific note examines the history of the corporate museum of joint-stock company for survey and design of transport construction objects Lengiprotrans (Lengiprotrans JSC). The museum was founded in 1972. Its collections were formed thanks to the participation of Lengiprotrans employees who were the main donators of various exhibits. The museum fund is constantly extended. Besides many archival documents on the history of Lengiprotrans JSC and the history of Russian railways design are kept there. Some details are published for the first time. For example, these are the quotes from the wall newspaper Vper’od (Forward) which was produced in Lengiprotrans. To date, there is now a need to update museum exposition, which
is associated both with modern trends in the development of corporate museums and with the celebration of 85th anniversary of the institute in 2020. By now, the museum retains the same design and concept like the ones were introduced in 2005, and its main function is a place for meetings. To create a multifunctional space for the purpose of conducting various educational events, thematic excursions, the idea of installing projection screens is proposed in the note. A broader version of the development of the renovated museum in future is the implementation of a large-scale and ambitious project to create a new museum in St. Petersburg and Russia for the study and design of transport construction facilities (MIPTO). This note contains a brief announcement of the possibilities of MIPTO. The published material is addressed to both specialists in the field of museum work and a wide circle of readers.
Key words: corporate museums, Lengiprotrans, railway design, railways, transport infrastructure, transport, engineering, excursions, quests, career guidance, corporate culture, corporate history, museum activities, company image.


 Liubeznikov O.A. Architect A.L. Rotach and his Book “St. Isaac’s Cathedral”:
Editions of 1962 and 2018 
— 76 (Rus.)

Liubeznikov, Oleg Anatolievich — Candidate of Science in History, Senior Lecturer, Saint Petersburg State University, Russia, Saint-Petersburg,

The article is dedicated to the history of publishing of the book about St Isaac’s cathedral by the architect-restorer A.L. Rotach in 1962. Moreover, the author analyzes the reissue of this book of 2018, which, unfortunately, does not have any scientific commentary. Based on unpublished documents which were introduced in the historical science for the first time from 6 funds of four Petersburg’s archives, the author could reconstruct unknown pages of live of A.L. Rotach and describe A.L. Rotach’s scientific views on the history of the building of St Isaac’s cathedral. In the 1950s during the restoration of the cathedral there was serious discussion about potential dismantling of the dome and it’s bearing structures. A.L. Rotach supposed that the deformations in the structures were not connecting with the uneven sinking of the cathedral. He wanted to disprove that concept and well-known concept about Montferrand’s mistakes which had been formulated in 1939 in the scientific monograph of architect N.P. Nikitin. To this end A.L. Rotach wrote his book.
Key words: St Isaac’s cathedral, A.L. Rotach, N.P. Nikitin, M.T. Preobrazhensky, V.I. Pilyavsky, Association “Knowledge”, restoration, museum.

  Andreeva I.V. Documentation as a Concept of Museology and Related Sciences — 90 (Rus.)

Andreeva, Irina Valerievna — Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Associate Professor,
Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture, Russia, Chelyabinsk,

The notion of “documentation” in museology denotes one of the leading functions of the
museum institute — the function of reflecting a wide range of phenomena of nature and society. The theory of documentation began to form in the last quarter of the 20th century, but to date has not received academic design. The term “documentation” is used in the status of a nonspecific general scientific concept. Aspects of the museological discourse of the theory of documentation are considered in two levels. The first level — the system of relations «reality — document» characterizes the model relations of the “musealia” and reality. The second level — the system of relations “reality — the subject” focuses, on the one hand, on the problem of reflecting reality in things, on the other — on the position of the subject who perceives this reflection in the categories of value. The outline of the theory of documentation contains some necessary components — a system of scientific bases, axiomatic statements, the formulation of the law, the principle, the consequences. But the substantiation of the object and the subject, the formulation and schematization of theoretical constructs, the logic of the deployment of the theory are not present, the aspects of the sensory specificity of museum documentation are poorly reflected. Parallel processes of the formation of the theory of documentation take place in related sciences, in particular, in document management, where the main criterion for distinguishing documentation
from related phenomena of reality reflection is the criterion of reliability, and the center
of gravity of research is transferred from the result to the process, that is, the method of mapping reality. Further development of the theory of documentation requires the use of the experience of modern philosophy and the use of the achievements of related sciences, in particular, addressed to the document as an object of knowledge.
Key words: museology, museum, museum functions, documentation, museological document, theory of museum documentation.

 Abroskina E.V. “Instead of Ethnography, You Have to Do It Exclusively …”:
Post-war Expeditions of the State Museum of Ethnography
through the Prism of Letters to A.Y. Duisburg
 — 102 (Rus.)

Abroskina, Evgenia Vyacheslavovna — Master of Museology, Researcher, Institute of
World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow,

The article is dedicated to the study of the post-war expedition letters of ethnographers
and collectors of the State Museum of Ethnography. The focus of the research is the case from the archive of the Russian museum of Ethnography “Letters to A.Y. Duisburg from individuals and museum researchers on the issue of the collection of ethnographic materials and expedition devices”. Letters are descriptions of expeditionary everyday life: difficulties encountered by collectors during work, emotional experiences that were affected by a variety of factors (gender, economic, etc.). The author sets himself the task of identifying these factors and answering the question: why did these letters exist, differing in form and content from the field diary and report? After analyzing the archive materials, the author places this phenomenon in the context of the study of Soviet subjectivity and makes an assumption that Soviet ethnographers used these narratives as a “technique of themselves” to overcome the emotional instability of the expeditionary situation.

Key words: Russian Museum of Ethnography, letters, expeditions, ethnography, Soviet
subjectivity, М. Foucault.


 Vakhromeeva O.B. To the Biography of the Person: aLittle-known Report
of M.I. Shcherbacheva’ in 1940 by the 175th Anniversary of the State Hermitage Museum 
— 115 (Rus.)

Vakhromeeva, Oksana Borisovna — Doctor of Science in History, Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

In the biography of a creative person, any detail is of colossal importance, both in terms of the direction of personal development, and from the position of its influence on the surrounding space. The psychobiographical method makes it possible to synthesize such small details with the main biographical, memoir, epistolary, research, and other legacies of an individual in order to clarify its life history. The article deals with the biography and artistic heritage of art historian Maria Illarionovna Shcherbacheva (1888–1968), an employee of the Hermitage, in 1941–1942 acting as a conservator of the museum. From July 17 to July 24, 1940, the State Hermitage Museum celebrated its 175th anniversary. A unique repository of values and historical memory appeared before the visitors. Possessing masterpieces of world importance, the Hermitage of the prewar period was distinguished by a uniform approach to the evaluation of cultural heritage sites. The article presents a little-known report of M.I. Shcherbacheva, read
on the anniversary of the museum.
Key words: biographical studies, M.I. Shcherbacheva, Western European art, the 175th anniversary of the State Hermitage Museum.

  Popov V.A. Architectural Heritage in the Light of Different Perceptions of History and Progress — 133 (Rus.)

Popov, Vadim Alekseevich — Chairman of the Council of the Mari regional branch of
The All-Russian Society for the Preservation of Historical and Cultural Monuments, Russian Federation, Yoshkar-Ola,

The article is dedicated to the attitude of different types of societies to architectural heritage. According to the author, the differences depend on how different societies perceive history and progress. To this end, the author uses the division of societies into “cold” and “hot”, proposed by C. Levi-Strauss instead of the common division into “primitive” and “modern” societies. By adapting this provision to the topic under consideration, the author tries to extend it to separate social groups within “hot” societies, which reveal some signs of “cold” societies. The key point in the article is that according to which the architectural antiquity of Russia in the Middle Ages did not need a special status and a special institute of protection, since it organically developed along with the rest of the environment thanks to the work of traditions. The radical changes of styles, characteristic of European art (and from some time Russian art), meet the requirements of progress, but they do not sustain the old traditions. Where architecture
evolved without changing styles, while remaining faithful to the traditions, the heritage
reproduced in new construction. Currently, genuine interest in heritage is preserved only within individual subcultures, for example, among the Old Believers.
Key words: cultural heritage, “cold” society, “hot” society, tradition, Old Believers, Russian North.

 Kakurkina V.A. The “Debarkader” Festival as a Form of Popularization
of the South Ural Contemporary Art 
— 147 (Rus.)

Кakurkina, Valentina Anatolievna — the Research fellow, the South Ural State History
Museum, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk,

The article describes the stages of the development of the international festival of contemporary art “Debarkader”, which annually takes place at South Ural State History Museum (Chelyabinsk). The main historical periods, as well as the features typical of the modern festival movement, are given. Consolidating various art forms in a single space, the “Debarkader” festival represents a in a way a study of the cultural peculiarities of the region, and also defines the main forms of interaction with the audience. In this regard, the festival realizes as a largescale creative laboratory for artists, designers, musicians, dancers, actors, poets and photographers. The article briefly describes and analyzes the creative projects of the festival, reflecting the main tendencies in the development of contemporary art in the South Ural.
Key words: museum, festival, “Debarkader”, contemporary art, exhibition project, creative dialogue, art synthesis.


 Sapanzha O.S. [Review of:] Biryukova M.V. Philosophia kuratorstva
[The Philosophy of Curatorship]. Saint-Petersburg:
DMITRY BULANIN Press, 2018. 336 p. ISBN: 978–5–86007–872–7 
— 152 (Rus.)

Sapanzha, Olga Sergeevna — Doctor of Cultural Studies, Professor, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Russia,

The review of the monograph The Philosophy of Curatorship by Marina Biryukova reflects the book’s focus of research: the modern trends in the development of exhibitions as cultural events and curatorial projects. The study of museum curatorial work is important in the context of museology. Marina Biryukova presents the concept of a curatorial project as an important cultural phenomenon of the second half of the 20th — early 21st centuries. The evolution of curatorial projects as a manifestation of new creative principles as well as manifestation of a new cultural paradigm is a part of the artistic discussion and the new type of museum discussion. In addition, the analysis of the monograph’s chapters considering museum projects as a new way of understanding current cultural trends in the museum space is presented in this review.
Key words: museology, museum, exhibition, curator, curatorship, modern and contemporary art, museum space, cultural space.

Download full issue  MUSEUM — MONUMENT — HERITAGE 1 (5) / 2019