A Problem in Focus: A Private Museum — History and Recent State

 Sapanzha O.S. Private Museum of Everyday Culture as a Modern Narrative — 5 (Rus.)

Sapanzha, Olga Sergeevna — Doctor of Cultural Studies, Professor, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

Private museums are an important part of modern culture. They are located between state museums and museum-type institutions. The preservation and updating of cultural heritage and the principle of private responsibility for the development of an organization is the basis of such institutions. A large group of private museums are institutions that are interested in household history, biographies and individual subjects. This group can be called museums of everyday culture. The characteristic of private museums of everyday culture as part of the museum space representing the new museum narrative is presented in this paper. Narrativeness is a feature of museum space. Statements about an event or related events in a series of images are the
basis of a museum interpretation. Interest in the museum’s “statement” on everyday topics has become an important marker of the culture of the twentieth, and especially — the beginning of the twenty-first century. Three features representing “museum narratives” in private museums of everyday culture are highlighted in the article. The movement from global to local history, from objectivity to subjective narratives, from ordinary to non-trivial, these are the features. These features determine the activities of museums that study private history and biographies, the space of the house, one class of objects, local social and communicative practices.
Key words: museum, private museum, museum type institution, museum narrative, everyday culture, museums of everyday culture.

 Shaina E.Yu. Private Collection as Objectified Harmony of the Creative Potential of a Person  14 (Rus.)

Shaina, Ekaterina Yurievna — Candidate of Cultural Studies, Head of the Funds and Exhibition Department (“Museum of Circus Arts”), the Bolshoi State St. Petersburg Circus, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article is devoted to the phenomena of private collections compiled by circus performers, as the depiction of their idealized thinking individualizing their consciousness. Through gathering materials about themselves and their family and showing them (and describing them) circus performers realize the need for public recognition, continue creative self-realization at different levels including self-realization outside circus area. There exist performers who want to see their collections not as a gathering of rare objects open only for selected guests but as a vivid organism open for communication in different creative forms. The performer-creator of the private museum is very brave and organic sometimes in acting with space and objects of his collection. From one point of view it is very attractive for visitors who are free in everything they do, but from another it is frightening because the unique objects of the collection can be lost. The museum created by a performer is honest in showing his thoughts and ideas, without curator’s or designer’s interpretation. It is interesting and unique because of its
constant changes and being a whole with its author.

Key words: collection, circus, performer, circus museum, laugh, self-psychotherapy, selfrealization, creativity.

 Maksimova A.B., Matetskaya M.V., Tipikina A.A., Kuzmina K.A., Kuzmicheva D.N. The Project “Your Own Museum” and Private Museums of Leningrad Region:
Preliminary Results of Research 
 25 (Rus.)

Maksimova, Anna Borisovna — the Director, the Private Museum “Museum Psoed”, Head of the project “My Own Museum”, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,;                                                                                      Matetskaya, Marina Vladimirovna — Candidate of Science in Economics, Manager of
the project “My Own Museum”, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,;
Tipikina, Anna Alexandrovna — Community Development Consultant, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,;
Kuzmina, Ksenia Alekseevna — Candidate of Science in Economics, Associate Professor, National Research University Higher School of Economics — St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,;
Kuzmicheva, Daria Nikolaevna — Student of Bachelor Programme, Higher School of
Economics — St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

This article presents the intermediate results of ”Svoi Musei” (Your Own Museum) project, dedicated to private museums in the Leningrad Region, which aims to create an Association of private museums in region. The project was initiated by the private institution “Museum of the village of Psoed” and is implemented with the support of the V. Potanin Charity Fund (implementation dates 2019–2021). One of the main results of the project is the support of existing private museums in the Leningrad Region and those who are ready to start creating them, in order to increase the overall level of museum management and increase information accessibility about museums. Empirical data that was collected during the project, became the basis of this article. The purpose of the article is to characterize the work of private museums at present, the models of their functioning, needs and development tasks. As a result of the analysis, several groups of private museums (the so-called “professional” and “non-professional”
museums) and differences in their activities has be determined. This information is of
interest for understanding and studying a private museum as a new cultural institution, and in aims of developing a set of support and policy measures for private museums. So, within the framework of the project, expert and consulting support is provided, an educational program is carried out. Moreover, the project ”Svoi Musei” (Your Own Museum) offers opportunities for communication and cooperation of museums within the cultural sector institutions, social and tourist infrastructure, government bodies, grant-giving organizations.
Key words: private museum, museum management, museum development, social and
cultural entrepreneurship.

 Patsey A.V. Museum as a Collective Art Project: On the History of the Museum of Nonconformist Art — 39 (Rus.)

Patsey, Anastasia Vladimirovna — the Director, the Museum of nonconformist art, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

This article addresses museum practice in the framework of artistic self-organization. The Museum of nonconformist art, founded by independent artists in the former squat on Pushkinskaya st. 10 in St. Petersburg in 1998, is chosen as the main example. This museum was created by members of the nonconformist movement and became the world’s first center dedicated to preserving and researching the heritage of unofficial culture in the USSR. It merged private collections of prominent actors of the Leningrad underground Evgeny Orlov and Sergey Kovalsky, who were also active organizers of exhibitions of unofficial art in the 1980s. The Museum of nonconformist art was thought of and created as a collective art project. It became part of the legendary art center “Pushkinskaya–10”, where it is now based next door to artists’ studios and a functioning creative commune, independent galleries, concert venues and numerous creative departments. The Museum of nonconformist art is characterized not only by its unusual history, but also by a unique working strategy based on continuous interaction with artists represented in its collection, active collaborations with members of the nonconformist community and a dialogue between generations. At the moment the number of works in its storages extends 4 000, and the museum faces new challenges in expanding its digital presence, making the collection more accessible and developing its working methods as the role and functions of museums in the modern society keep changing.
Key words: nonconformism, unofficial art, squat, Pushkinskaya-10, museum work, selforganization, Leningrad underground.

 Bakaldina E.V. Collection of M.P. Botkin: Private Collection or Museum — 46 (Rus.)

Bakaldina, Elena Viacheslavovna — Candidate of Science in History, Senior Research
Fellow, the Saint-Petersburg Roerich Family Institute-Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

Collection of M.P. Botkin (1839–1914) consisted of objects of antiquity, the Middle Ages,
the Renaissance, Old Russian objects, as well as paintings by contemporary artists. The collection was available to visitors by prior arrangement because it was located in five rooms which were used by the inhabitants of the house for its intended purpose: a cabinet, a dining room, a library, also at exhibitions and at scientific meetings. At the same time, some objects were not shown to visitors and researchers. The integrity of the collection was periodically violated: some of the objects were transferred to various institutions, as well as to relatives and friends of the family. The problem of the future integrity of the collection was not even raised in the M.P. Botkin’s will. In April 1917, for safekeeping, part of the collection was deposited in the Russian Museum: subsequently, these objects were shared between the Russian Museum and the Hermitage, but at least half of the collection remained in the Botkin’s house. Thus, we can state that the Botkin’s collection was difficult to access, objects from the collection could be donated, there wasn’t the museum catalog or file compiled with a complete list of the objects.
Key words: M.P. Botkin, collection, museum, catalogization, private collection.


 Svetukhina A.M., Slepkova N.V. The First Public Exhibition of Russian Manufactured Products in the Views of Visitors — 57 (Rus.)

Svetukhina, Alla Mikhailovna — an Independent Researcher, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,;
Slepkova, Nadezhda Valentinovna — Candidate of Science in Biology, Senior Research
Fellow, Zoological Institute of RAS, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article is dedicated to the First Public Exhibition of Russian Manufactured Products,
which was opened in St. Petersburg on May 15, 1829 at the initiative of the Minister of Finance E.F. Kankrin in the buildings of the Southern Customs Warehouse on the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island. This event was a matter of state importance and marked the beginning of exhibition activities In Russia. A completely new, unusual case caused unprecedented interest among the public. The authors provide an opportunity to see the first exhibition through the eyes of it contemporaries — journalists, foreigners and ordinary residents of the capital and to see how public opinion was formed around the first experience of displaying of domestically produced goods. An important result of the exhibition was the understanding that domestic goods can compete with foreign in a dignified way. The article is based on materials from magazines and newspapers of the time, from the memories of contemporaries and from the exhibition description of 1829. The Exhibition Hall is reproduced during the exhibition of 1861, and it make possible
to present how it looked like before the reconstruction, made in 1895 by R.R. Marfeld
for the Zoological museum. It was the first building In Russia, specially constructed for exhibition purposes.
Key words: the First Public Exhibition of Russian Manufactured Products, E.F. Kankrin,
visitors of the exhibition.

 Tuminskaya O.A. Agitation of Atheism in the State Russian Museum (1922–1939) — 67 (Rus.)

Tuminskaya, Olga Anatolievna — Doctor of Science in Art History, Head of the Sector of
Aesthetic Education, the Methodic Department, the State Russian Museum, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg,

The Russian Museum of the Emperor Alexander III, along with the monuments of secular art, which were more numerous, had items of a cult type that represent the history of Eastern Christian art. Collections of Christian antiquities that were provided to the Museum were previously collected by private collectors, public organizations and existed in churches and monasteries. For various reasons and under different conditions, they were transferred to the Russian Museum and became the core Of the Department of Christian antiquities (1898–1914). Subsequently, the ancient Repository became the basis of the funds and exhibitions of the Department of ancient Russian art. The objects of worship that were collected by interested persons on the basis of propaganda of artistic value over time and under the pressure of the ideological
attitudes of the new socialist state fell into the line of debunking the religious component of works of iconography and plastic art. From 1922 to 1932, a lot of work was done to reform the exposition of the Department of ancient Russian art on the “principles of socialist ideology”. During 1935–1939, several temporary exhibitions and three versions of the permanent exhibition of Russian art of the XII–XVII centuries were arranged. The main condition for organizing the exhibition and presenting it to the audience was to level the religious context and emphasize the artistic, cultural, historical and archaeological aspects.
Key words: the State Russian Museum, Department of ancient Russian art, atheistic propaganda, cult art, icons, museumification, display.

  Grin’ko I.A. “It’s Fantastic — Is It Not?”: Museums in Science Fiction and Museum Futurology— 82 (Rus.)

Grin’ko, Ivan Alexandrovitch — Candidate of Science in History, MA in Cultural Management, Head of the Department for Museum and Tourism Development, SAIC “MOSGORTUR”, Russian Federation, Moscow,

The article analyzes the image of the museum in science fiction literature of the XX century. The main source is the works of the stars of the “golden age” of science fiction Isaac Asimov, Clifford Simak, Robert Sheckley, Roger Zelazny, Robert Heinlein, Philip K. Dick, and some Russian authors. All the classics of this genre in one way or another related to the theme of museums, since it is directly related to the theme of time and human (d)evolution. According to the prognostic potential of science fiction, it is important to understand how science fiction writers of the 20th century saw the future of such an institution as a museum, which from their predictions had come true, and what potential dangers they could identify. The analysis of science fiction works shows that science fiction writers raised the majority of the most important themes of museum development: the problem of the authenticity of exhibits, relations with the visitor, ethical conflicts in creating exhibitions and acquiring collections, preserving of the intangible heritage, museumification of urban space, and much more.
Key words: museums, science fiction, futurology, museum ethics, museum exposition,
museology, ecomuseum, museum visitor.


 Dianova E.V. Local Experience of Monuments Protection: Historical Retrospective of Petrozavodsk and Petrozavodsk County of Karelia — 93 (Rus.)

Dianova, Elena Vasilyevna — Doctor of Science in History, Associate Professor, the Petrozavodsk, State University, Russian Federation, Petrozavodsk,                        

In this article, on the example of the work of the Commission for the Protection of Monuments of Antiquity, Art and Nature, which existed in Karelia in the second half of the 1920th, describes local experience in the preservation of historical and cultural heritage. On the basis of archival materials, the activities of the Commission for the Protection of Ancient Monuments in Petrozavsk and Petrozavsk County have been identified, including the compilation of a list of specially protected objects. The purpose of this article is to relate the information of the 1920th on religious and industrial buildings included in the list of the Commission for the Protection of Monuments of the Antiquity, Art and Nature of Karelia to historical and cultural objects still preserved or lost in the following decades. The analysis of the available materials made it possible to conclude that not all monuments of wooden architecture of the 17–18th centuries were taken into account by the commission, as later new lists of ancient churches and
chapels to be protected by the state were drawn up. In addition, to date, only the Church of Peter and Pavel on the Lychny Island in the Condopozhsky district of Karelia and the Himorets Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in the Suborozhye district of Leningrad region, as well as the Church of St. Peter (1721) in the village have survived from the wooden temples of the 17th century included in the list and were located. Another monument of the Petrovsk era — the Conchezy Plant, an object of historical and cultural heritage of Karelia, transferred to private property, is gradually being destroyed.
Key words: monument, wooden architecture, churches, chapels, factory, historical, cultural and industrial heritage.

  Venshchikov M.A. Byzantine Iconographic Legacy at the van Eyck Exhibition — 106 (Rus.)

Venshchikov, Mikhail Anatol’evich — Candidate of Science in Art History, Lecturer, Saint
Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg,

The exhibition Van Eyck. The Optical Revolution, organized by the Museum of Fine Arts
in Ghent, has played an important role in highlighting the phenomena of the Renaissance in the Netherlands. The art of Van Eyck, the masters of his circle and his followers was presented at the exhibition by the paintings from the museums of Europe and the United States. Acclaimed as a national cultural project, the exhibition attracted an audience from all over the world in March and April 2020. The concept of exhibition was based on contextual relationships between the Ghent Altarpiece’s shutters, separated from each other, with paintings and museum objects from various collections. The organizers paid special attention to the portrait genre development in Dutch painting of the 15th century, as well as its religious line, built according to the recipes of the Byzantine icons. The Holy Face by Jan van Eyck, presented at the exhibition of copy of the 17th century, is one of the first incarnations of the miraculous image in the Renaissance art. Using individual elements of Eastern Christian and Latin verses, the artist does not literally repeat any of them, but relies on local traditions of perception. The genesis of a religious portrait in this period may indicate the development of archetypal iconography outside Byzantium: beyond the context of a centuries-old tradition.
Key words: exhibition, Van Eyck, iconography, Holy Face, Veronica, relic, miraculous image.

 Koroleva M.E. The Study of Decorative and Applied Art Objects in Private Collections in Russia: А Review of Source Study and Historiography — 121 (Rus.)

Koroleva, Maria Evgenievna — Curator, The Peterhof Museum Reserve, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

This article focuses on the development of scientific research practices in the field of private Russian collections of decorative and applied art from the standpoint of source studies and historiography. Decorative and applied art collections first appeared in the second half of the 18th century and gradually lost their prominence in the first decade of the 20th century, when most private collections were donated to the state. It took almost a century and a half for decorative and applied art to complete its life cycle in the historical and cultural context: from a utilitarian object actively used in everyday life to a collectible of comprehensive scientific value. Private collectors played the key role in turning decorative and applied art objects into proper collectibles and objects of scientific study. They not only set the trends in collections of these art objects, but their active personal interest also gave birth to the era of scientific research in this field. In this article, the author turns to the previously unexplored branch of source studies and historiography dedicated to private collections of decorative and applied art.
Key words: decorative and applied arts, decorative and applied art collections, private
collections, study of decorative and applied arts, attribution, source study.


 Averyanov K.A. When Did the Coats of Arms Appear in Russia? — 133 (Rus.)

Averyanov, Konstantin Aleksandrovich — Doctor of Science in History, Leading Research Fellow, Institute of Russian History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Moscow,

It is believed that the modern Russian coat of arms appeared at the end of the 15th century thanks to the marriage of the Grand Duke Ivan III with the Byzantine Princess Sophia Paleolog. It turns out that three centuries before its appearance In Russia there was a patrimonial emblem of the Vladimir-Suzdal princes, traces of which are traced on the monuments of architecture, art, writing. She appeared thanks to the marriage of Vsevolod the Big Nest with Maria Shvarnovna.                                                            Key words: coat of arms, patrimonial emblem, Vsevolod the Big Nest, Maria Shvarnovna, Fedorov’s gospel, Likhachev’s gates, St. George’s Cathedral in Yuryev-Polsky.

  Bakaiutova L.N., Lazutina A.Yu. The Visual Presentation of the Historical and Cultural Memory of the State by Marks of the Postage Payment — 144 (Rus.)

Bakaiutova, Liudmilla Nikolayevna — Candidate of Science in Cultural Studies, Curatorinchief of the National philatelic collection, A.S. Popov Central Museum of Communications, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,;

Lazutina, Anastasia Yuryevna — Student of Master Programme, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article is devoted to the wide possibilities of studying the collections of postage stamps as museum monuments of graphic miniature; patriotic education of youth; realization of social and political ideals. Philately is presented as one of the directions of the subject field of culture associated with historical research in the field of human communications and the historical development of territories, as well as with the memorialization of significant natural phenomena and events of the era. Postage stamps are not only a monetary equivalent, but also miniature graphics with their own symbols, codes, signs, which are not only a postal document, but also a work of art by famous graphic artists that is a witness to the past and present. A postage stamp, along with a propaganda and advertising poster, and even more significant than a poster, at least due to the huge circulation; is a symbol of the era, reflecting the achievements of the time and associated historical milestones, in a laconic, but accessible form for society. Stamps are an amazing world in which postage stamps reveal grandiose historical events, characteristic features of eras, the birth of new symbols, and reveal amazing stories of creators and collectors. The visualization of postage signs in the modern world is relevant from the point of view of the reflection of historical events and the transmission of this paradigm of time to subsequent generations.
Key words: philately, tembrology, marks of the postage payment, visualization, museum space, national collections, topical collections.

 Klimov T.A. Indigenous Peoples’ Participation in Representing their Cultural Heritage in Foreign Museums — 153 (Rus.)

Klimov, Timur Aleksandrovitch — Bachelor of International Relations, Student of Master
Programme, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article contains an analysis of common forms of indigenous peoples’ participation
in museum activity that have developed in the USA, Canada and Northern Europe in recent decades. Their active engagement in exhibition planning and other types of museum work is based on the will to exercise their rights to cultural autonomy, to overcome the effects of unequal, colonial relations by means of taking back the control of narration about their history, culture and values. Two main forms of ethnic communities’ museum activity are distinguished and analyzed: participation in exhibition projects of major museums (illustrated by institutions in Canada and the USA) and the creation of separate museum institutions with significant distinctive features (illustrated chiefly by the case of Northern Europe’s indigenous people — the Sámi). Conclusions are drawn regarding the nature of these practices being a part of identity
politics, and the main contents, similarities and differences of narrations created by various groups are highlighted. The possibility of applying the concept of ‘post-museum’ to these trends, as well the issue of changing customary museum functions are also discussed. The emergence of new stakeholders offering alternative opinions and interpretations is one of the major factors of discussion regarding the role of museums in the modern world.
Key words: museum exposition, exposition and exhibition activities, indigenous peoples, the Sámi.


 Kuklinova I.A. [Review of:] (Mairesse F. ed.) Histoire de la muséologie.
Quelques figures marquantes du monde muséal francophone. Paris: ICOFOM, 2020. 307 p. ISBN 978–92–9012–475–7 (print) — 161 (Rus.)

Kuklinova, Irina Anatolievna — Candidate of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University of Culture, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The review has been written for the monograph published in 2020 by the International
Committee for Museology (ICOFOM) of ICOM. This composite work continues a series of biographical researches in the tradition of historical museology. In this case the contribution of French-speaking museum workers into establishment and development of the world of museums is explored. Biographies of 17 French, 2 Belgian and 1 Swiss museum workers are presented. Papers have been written by students of the Master’s program in Museology Studies who had previously attended a course in Museology Methods of François Mairesse, the former head of ICOFOM. Biographies of museum workers are presented in chronological order and cover two centuries of museum industry development. The unique feature of this paper is considerable attention its authors pay to collecting information on each of characters described in the publication. The process of collecting is not easy, because some museum workers mentioned
in the monograph have not attracted the attention of researchers for a long time, and their works could be viewed quite contradictory by contemporaries. Moreover, many of them were involved in practical museum and monument protection activities and did not leave any significant bodies of their own works that would allow assessing the innovation of their efforts. Also, a select circle of museum workers is a testimony of the broader interpretation of the notion of museology as such by the authors, who see it as a wide area that covers all achievements and efforts in theory and critical thought regarding museums.
Key words: museology, museography, museum, museum figure, cultural heritage, IСOFOM, Louvre School.

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