A Problem in Focus: A Phenomenon of Provincial Museum in Early Soviet Time

 Utkina N.A. The Construction of the Nizhny Novgorod Art and Historical Museum in 1918–1924 — 5 (Rus.)

Utkina, Nadezhda Alekseevna — Candidate of Science in History, the Head of the Department of Exhibitions, the Museum of the Nizhniy Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky, Russian Federation, Nizhniy Novgorod,

The article is devoted to the main structural and qualitative changes in the activities of
the Nizhny Novgorod City Art and Historical Museum in 1918–1924 in comparison with
the pre-revolutionary period of the development of Nizhny Novgorod museum institutions: the participation of the owners of the nationalized estate in the organization of the museum, the introduction of the concept of “folk” in relation to the museum and collections of landowners and nobles which were brought here, changing the social composition of visitors, methodological foundations for creating exhibits, inviting leadership and cooperation with a museum of new faces, including from other cities. The article was based on a corpus of previously unpublished archival documents.
Key words: Nizhny Novgorod, historical museum, art museum, public museum, reorganization, I.S. Rukavishnikov, M.S. Rukavishnikov, L.V. Rosental.

 Guryanov V.N., Guryanov V.V., Chubur A.A. The Amateur Provincial Archaeologists — the Creators of the First Local History Museums of Bryansk Province — 16 (Rus.)

Guryanov, Valerii Nikolaevich — the Head of department of organization of scientific research, Bryansk State University named after Academician I.G. Petrovsky, Russian Federation, Bryansk,;
Guryanov, Vasilii Valerievich — Ph.D. student, Bryansk State University named after Academician I.G. Petrovsky, Russian Federation, Bryansk,;
Chubur, Arthur Arthurovich — Candidate of Science in History, Director of the Research
Center for Integrated Study of the Middle-Desna Region, Bryansk State University named after Academician I.G. Petrovsky, Russian Federation, Bryansk,

In the first years of Soviet power in the newly formed Bryansk province of the RSFSR,
on the initiative of local lore enthusiasts, museum construction began. In the district town of Trubchevsk (according to the chronicle — Trubech), a learned forester and amateur archaeologist Georgy Mikhailovich Porshnyakov created the Trubchevsk Natural History and Archaeological Museum in the house he acquired. This museum was the first in the Bryansk province. Following him, the former State Councilor and Inspector of Public Schools, historian and art historian Sergey Sergeevich Deev, succeeded in creating a museum in the provincial center of Bryansk. It was named the Bryansk Province Museum of the local region. Both enthusiasts were appointed
directors of the museums created by them and continued to actively replenish their funds, conduct educational and research work. G. Porshnyakov began excavations of the Kveutn medieval kurgan necropolis. S. Deev opened the first Palaeolithic site of Suponevo in Bryansk Podesenye. Both were engaged in the creation of detailed archaeological maps of the Bryansk and Trubchevsk counties. Since the beginning of the Stalinist “great breakthrough”, both directors were dismissed and expelled from the museums created by them, as representatives of the “old-regime” intelligentsia.
The article provides basic biographical information about G.M. Porshnyakov and S.S. Deev.
Key words: Georgy Porshnyakov, Sergey Deev, Trubchevsk Natural Historical and Archaeological Museum, Bryansk Regional Museum of the Local Territory, Bryansk Province.

 Telina S.A. From the History of the First Museum in Saransk (1918–1928)  27 (Rus.)

Telina Svetlana Anatolievna — the Head of the historical department of the Mordovian Republican United Museum named after I.D. Voronin, Russian Federation, Saransk,

The article is devoted to the history of the Museum of native land, opened in Saransk in
November 1918 by the decision of local Department of public education. Assistance in the organization of the museum provided a group of intellectuals of the city, who in 1919 were united in the Society for the study of native land. Based on archival documents, the author of this article shows the problems and difficulties of the provincial museum: the lack of permanent buildings and equipment, difficulties in the acquisition and storage of funds, lack of personnel. In 1928 this Museum of native land, which arose as a Museum of Saransk County, changes its status and was renamed as the Museum of Mordovian district.
Key words: Museum of the native land, Society for the study of the native land, the
acquisition of collections, exposition, exhibition, museum staff.

 Vinogradova Yu.A. A Museum Work in The Soviet Province.
The History of the Museum of Kineshma City, Ivanovo Region in 1919–1920th 
— 36 (Rus.)

Vinogradova, Yulia Alexandrovna — the Junior Research Fellow, Kineshma Museum of
art and history, Russian Federation, Kineshma,

The focus of the article is the problem of organization of the museum in the city Kineshma in Ivanovo region. The importance and relevance of this museum for a small provincial town is revealed through the facts of its early history. The purpose of the article is to characterize the activities of the museum in the first decade of Soviet power. The author for the first time traces the continuity with some prerevolutionary institutions (pedagogical museum, etc). The author comes to the conclusion that in 1919–1920th museum workers, despite the difficulties of this period, in conditions of limited resources (financial, human, administrative), sought to collect, promote and popularize the updated museum collection.
Key words: Zemstvo reform of education, museum, nationalization, educational activity, Kineshma County, Ivanovo region.


 Slepkova N.V. On the Plans of Reformation of the Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute by RAS in Leningrad Before the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 — 43 (Rus.)

Slepkova Nadezhda Valentinovna — Candidate of Science in Biology, the Senior Research Fellow, Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

Article describes the plans of improving of the activity of the Zoological Museum in Leningrad, which was developed before the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. The task of intensifying the activities of museums of the Academy of Sciences was consistent with the plans of the authorities to make them an active point of political and educational work. Ambitious projects concerning the Museum, which has been started in the 1930s, a project of renovation of the Introductory Hall made by I.D. Strel’nikov in 1937, have no adequate resources to implement them. It was planned to raise the status of academic museums by turning them into independent divisions inside he institutes led by a person who belong to the Directorate of the Institute, with the strictly fixed appropriations, staff, and work plans. New Provisions on the Zoological Museum had been drafted. A number of decisions regarding personnel were implemented back in prewar years.
Key words: Zoological Museum, museums of Academy of Sciences, I.D. Strel’nikov.

 Hookk D.Yu. “Returnability” as a Criterion of a Successful Museum — 56 (Eng.)

Hookk, Daria Yurievna — Ph.D. in Philology, Senor Research Fellow, the State Hermitage, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg,

The modern trends and innovations are described by the museum experts in order to propose a solution, how success can be evaluated. Why they fix some necessary innovations in order to evaluate effectiveness? Supposing the new facilities and services attract people and help increase income, the managers control the number of innovations they do to analyse a museum as a big system with input, output and feedback. Strictly speaking, the magic of big numbers was described by Marie-Louise von Franz. The ability to manage numbers gives power. It is easier to believe figures than to make logical conclusions. The change of museum communication paradigms resulted in decreasing of the influence of cognitive component on the success of the museum. That means the success of a museum does not depend on the innovative approaches or modern trends like the increasing number of multimedia in exhibition halls, it is influenced by the attractive atmosphere leading to a desire to come again with friends or with the family. Targeting at the young visitors creates / attracts the constant museum audience for the following decades. Since the generation Y was revealed as the mainstream of the museum public, the suggestion is to use in designing web-sites the methodology clear and understandable to the generation Y.
Key words: museum, effectiveness, museum communication, returnability.

 Chesnyak M.G. Some Psychological and Pedagogical Aspects of Interpretation of a Museum Object by Visitors of the Museum — 62 (Rus.)

Chesnyak, Marina Gennadievna — Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Head of department of cultural and educational activity and reception of visitors, Stavropol state historical, cultural, natural and landscape museum reserve named after G.N. Prozritelev and G.K. Prave, Russian Federation, Stavropol,

In article psychology and pedagogical aspects of familiarizing of visitors of the museum
with interpretation of a museum subject are considered. The informative type of museum communication assumes creation of conditions for the first step of interpretation by visitors of a museum subject by means of pedagogical methods of stimulation and motivation of activity and behavior. Conditions for the second step of interpretation are created when using pedagogical methods of formation of consciousness, the organization of activity and formation of experience of public behavior, control of efficiency of museum communication as pedagogical process. Psychological aspects of the informative museum communication promoting the first step of interpretation of a museum subject are connected with activization: 1) any externally — and internally directed perception and any attention (methods of stimulation and motivation of activity and behavior of tourists); 2) quick, motive, emotional, figurative and verbal, any and cognitive memories of types (control methods of efficiency of museum communication); 3) thinking (methods of formation of consciousness, organization of activity and formation of experience of public behavior). At the level of directly interpretation museum communication is characterized by inner-directed perception, special kind of attention, long-term memory, thinking which is characterized by the statement of judgments on the basis of the analysis, comparison and the subsequent conclusions of rather museum subject as information source.
Key words: preunderstanding, interpretation, informative museum communication, methods of the general pedagogics, excursion methods, psychological processes.


 Pudov G.A. The Wrought Iron Items for the Lighting from the Collection
of the State Russian Museum 
— 72 (Rus.)

Pudov, Gleb Aleksandrovich — Candidate of Art History, Senior Research Fellow, The
State Russian Museum, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation,

Svetets — wrought iron item for the splinters. It was very long time the only type of
lighting of the peasant house. Despite of the abundance of wrought iron items for the lighting (“svetets”) in museum collections they have attracted little attention of Russian researchers. This paper deals with the collection of iron lighting items from the Department of folk art of the State Russian Museum. The collection consists of more than fifty artifacts. Almost all of them were made in Vologda and Arkhangelsk provinces. Among the subjects there is number of products that can be called outstanding works of folk art. The author defined the main features of this collection and reveals the history of some iron artifacts.
Key words: svetets, peasant house, iron, lighting, museum collection, folk art, V.V. Suslov, B.Y. Milman, V.A. Tauber.

  Hvostova G.A. The Unknown Materials to the Biography of an Unknown Architect. N.T. Stukolkin in the Summer Garden — 82 (Rus.)

Hvostova, Galina Aleksandrovna — art historian, Leading Research Fellow, the State Russian Museum, the curator of the sculptures of the Summer garden, Honored worker of culture of Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

During the analysis of archival materials of the late XIX — early XX century on the history of the monuments and the collection of sculptures of the Summer garden we often found name of N.T. Stukolkin, architect of the Ministry of the Imperial court, who was supervisor of all works in the Summer garden in that period. The biography of the architect has not been studied up to now. Based on archival materials we reconstructed main stages of Stukolkin’s work in the garden. N.T. Stukolkin successfully managed the restoration of the collection of marble sculptures collected by Peter the Great in the early XVIII century; he was engaged in planning both restoration and maintenance work on all the buildings of the Summer garden. N.T. Stukolkin was also engaged in the consideration of estimates submitted by numerous performers and candidates for various kinds of works on the garden. According to archival documents N.T. Stukolkin performed his diverse responsibilities until 1917. His biography after that year remains unknown. N.T. Stukolkin died in 1941.
Key words: architect of the Ministry of the Imperial Court, sculpture of the Summer
garden, repair and restoration works, N.T. Stukolkin.

 Manturov M.V. A Museum Politics of 1917–1935: A case of Collection of the Marble Palace — 96 (Rus.)

Manturov, Mikhail Vladimirovich — Research Fellow, The State Russian Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article covers history of the collections of the Marble Palace during the difficult and
sometimes tragic period in the history of Russia from 1917 to 1935. The first short period refers to the time of the Provisional Government from March to October 1917. The result of the work of the Provisional Government was the acquisition of the Marble Palace and the collections held therein into national ownership. But this decision was not implemented. The second stage took place from October 1917 to March 1935, when the Marble Palace acquired the status of Cultural property site, which was under the protection of the Soviet state. During this period, the palace collections became part of the State Museum Fund and were distributed among the various museum collections of the country. Currently, they are stored in many museums in Russia as well as abroad.
Key words: Marble Palace, Provisional Government, Petrograd, State Museum Fund, Decrees of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR.


 Lysenko O.A. A Picture Frame in the Museum Exhibition: Problems of Authenticity and Interpretation— 103 (Rus.)

Lysenko, Oksana Alexandrovna — the Senior Research Fellow, The State Russian Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

Frames occupy a significant place in the exposition of an art museum: they complement
the painting, influence its perception and, at the same time, organize the space of the museum room. The image of the museum exhibition, what kind of the thoughts, emotions, associations it evokes, depends not only on pictures, but also on the frames in which they are presented. Meanwhile, Russian museums for the most part have not yet come to understand the role of the frame in the perception of the picture and the meaning of the artist’s frame, nor to the awareness of the frame as a work of art, closely connected with painting and more broadly — with the culture of its time. Theoretically, art museums strictly adhere to the principle of authenticity and the principle of scientific when creating an exhibition. In practice, everything is different. The choice of frames for the exhibited pictures is not preceded by scientific research. With the development of the baguette market, Russian museums began to replace the originals with imitations
of low quality. Today is observed an alarming trend of losing “taste for authenticity”.

Key words: frame, picture, authentic frame, exposition, museum, authenticity, artist’s
conception, restoration, conservation.

  Vasilev N.K., Kumanova A.V., Kazanski N.R. To the Problem of Anthologism
in the Bulgarian Literature (1910–2018): A Historiographic-Bibliographic Discourse
— 112 (Rus.)

Vasilev, Nikolay Kurtev — Doctor of the Theory of Scientific Information, Assistant professor, University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Bulgaria, Sofia,;
Kumanova, Alexandra Venkova — Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences (D.Sc.), Professor, University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Bulgaria, Sofia,;
Kazanski, Nikola Rachev — PhD, Associate Professor, Central Library of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria, Sofia,

In the article the anthologies are examined as a part of Bulgarian cultural heritage. It is
shown that the creators of anthologies make original literary epistemies regularizing the presence of authors, titles and literary schools hypostatically weaved into the elegant vault of the Bulgarian refined speech. It is given a selection of 37 anthologies for 1910–2009 carried out on the basis of more than 400 published models of anthological forms. By chronology are presented the following groups of anthologies: Bulgarian poetry; Bulgarian belles lettres; Bulgarian dramaturgy; utilitarian fiction for different social, political, cultural and educational activities; Bulgarian children’s literature; Bulgarian comic and satiric literature; translated and foreign fiction; anthologies of Bulgarian and translated foreign fiction. It is pointed out on the edition Golden chrestomathy of Bulgaria (2014, 2015, 2018), encompassing for the first time the whole chronotope of the historic and literary process in ІХ–ХХІ centuries.
Key words: anthology, Bulgarian literature, culture, heritage, historiographic-bibliographic discourse.

 Long Ziyan A Synthesis of Types of Heritage in the System of Training Choreographers and Teachers in Modern China — 130 (Rus.)

Long, Ziyan — Ph.D. student, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,
The article substantiates the relevance of the study of the intangible heritage of European ballet for Chinese choreographic education through an appeal to the material component of this heritage in the form of plastic arts. The duality of the synthesis of arts having both the plan of expression and the plan of content is revealed. The special role of cultural heritage in the work on the artistic image in a ballet performance is emphasized. There is a feature of the Russian choreographic school, which focuses on the education of the artist-artist. The article describes the situation in the Chinese choreographic education system, in which there is a difficulty with the integration of the European experience necessary for the Chinese choreographic school to reach the world level. It is concluded that it is necessary to include courses on the development of the heritage of plastic arts in Europe in the educational program of training of Chinese ballet dancers.
Key words: choreography, spatial arts, China, Chinese education, choreographic education, synthesis of arts.


 Busygin A.E. [Review of:] Bonami Z.A. Kak chitat’ i ponimat’ muzey. Filosofiya muzeya [How to Comprehend and Understand the Museum. The Philosophy of the Museum]. Moscow: AST Publ., 2018. 224 p. ISBN: 978–5–17–098517–3 — 136 (Rus.)

Busygin, Andrey Evgenievitch — Doctor of Science in Economic, Professor, Full State
Counsellor 1st Class of the Russian Federation, Main Research Fellow, Institute of Socio-Political Studies by RAS, Russian Federation, Moscow,

The review observes one of the few recent books in museology, published by the Russian researchers. Naming the clear expression of thought and natural style of writing as the indisputable merits of the book, the reviewer also underlines that in contents it does not presume any simplifying in interpretation of the museum’s genesis or present state. The review contains a gist of all six essays compiling a book, drawing attention to the importance of the word “philosophy” in its title. It also marks the special significance of those passages, in which the author is reflecting on the future development of museums, specially in Russia, demonstrating the abilities of a well –prepared analyst with the true concern of a museum professional, perfectly feeling the museum’s nature from inside. The special compliment wins the book’s design and choice of illustrations.

Key words: philosophy of the museum, institute of memory, moral essence of the museum, museum skepticism, humanities.

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