A Problem in Focus: In memoriam of Alexandr Samoylovitch Drikker (1941–2020)

 Kalnitskaya E.Ya. The Tsar and the Poets: Peterhof Etude — 5 (Rus.)

Kalnitskaya, Elena Yakovlevna — Doctor of Cultural Studies, General Director of GMZ “Peterhof”, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Peterhof,

The essay, which is a part from a future book, tells about the Peterhof everyday life of
the 19th century, in which different aspects of the intellectual life of Russia were reflected, and literature played a significant role. In Peterhof lived European princesses, wives of grand dukes, who studied Russian language, which was often taught to them by famous writers, in particular, Vasily Andreevich Zhukovsky.
Key words: Peterhof, Russian literature, history, culture, museum.

 Kalugina T.P. On the Problem of Dualism of Musem Object: Authenticity or Verisimilitude?  14 (Rus.)

Kalugina, Tatyana Pavlovna — Doctor of Philosophy, the Head of the Department of
Translations for Publications and Exhibition Projects, the State Russian Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article examines an aspect of the complex, many-layered issue of the dualistic nature of museum objects: the dialectic between authenticity and verisimilitude of exhibits in a museum. The author demonstrates this dialectic by analysing issues relating to it that museum workers often encounter in practice. Particular focus is given to the matter of so-called analogues, which memorial museums often face, as such museums by definition preserve and exhibit originals, the actual items that surrounded the memorialised person in life. In cases where originals have not survived they’re replaced with analogues, which however does not diminish the emotional response felt by visitors. So the question arises: What generates this response if the memorial object is not authentic? The author analyses the terms “authentic” and “verisimilar” and touches on the matters of copies among art museum exhibits and the true source of
museumgoers’ aesthetic impressions. Also examined is the question of restoration in relation to the authenticity-verisimilitude dialectic, which is especially relevant in the context of museumification of contemporary art objects. The article offers no unambiguous solution to the problem of authenticity and verisimilitude, with the author noting that potential solutions will always be determined by one or another cultural context.                                                                                                                         Key words: museum object, exhibit, memorial museum, art museum, authenticity, verisimilitude, copy, analogue, principles of restoration.

 Khrenov N.A. Methodological Transformations of Modern Art Studies:
The Interdisciplinary Aspect 
 21 (Rus.)

Khrenov, Nikolay Аndreevich — Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, the Chief Research Fellow, the State Institute for Art Studies, Russian Federation, Moscow,

The methodology of interdisciplinary cooperation in scientific knowledge is considered
on the example of relationship of Humanities, i.e. art studies, cultural studies, and aesthetics. The author focuses on art science, which is currently functioning in its mature form, usually referred to in the philosophy of science as “normal” science, and therefore feels the need to develop and improve assimilating the methods of other Humanities and philosophical areas, such as hermeneutics, phenomenology and ontology. However, the attitude of art critics to this trend is far from ambiguous. The super-task of their activity is connected with preserving the high status of individual and subjective essence in art. Meanwhile, assimilation of methods of related sciences often leads to the loss of this status and to blurring of ideas about the subject of art science. Analyzing external and internal factors of improving the science of art, the author
considers internal factors as the main factors, which means that one of subdisciplines of
art studies should be activated, namely, the theory of art, which still remains less developed than other subdisciplines.
Key words: Humanities, art studies, cultural studies, aesthetics, interdisciplinary approach.

 Ronchi A.M. Being Doctor in Cultural Studies — 50 (Rus.)

Ronchi, Alfredo M. — Full Professor, Politecnico di Milano, Secretary EC MEDICI Framework Foundation, Italy, Milano,

This paper explores the field of investigations and interests of a doctor in cultural studies in a period of profound transformation of research, conservation, fruition and engagement in culture. It collects and summarizes some of the key topics discussed in the last decades on the occasion of conferences, seminars and brainstorming held in Sankt Petersburg. Professor Alexander Drikker, doctor in cultural studies, was the key partner in such studies providing different cultural perspectives and critical thinking.
Key words: cultural studies, research, conservation, museum, cultural heritage.

 Potapova M.V., Ievleva N.V. Potential Audience for the Art Museum:
Perspectives of Development (Based upon Sociological Studies)
— 65 (Rus.)

Potapova, Marina Vasilievna — Candidate of Science in Philosophy, the Independent Researcher, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,;

Ievleva, Natalia Victorovna — the Independent Researcher, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

Studying of a potential targeted audience of art museums allows not only to assess possible avenues of their subsequent development but also permits to foresee putative changes in their traditional place in society. This paper presents the analysis of the results of comparative sociological studies of potential youth audience (students of Saint Petersburg higher educational institutions) of a traditional art museum. Results show a wanting of interest in the traditional art museum on the part of wide student public due to sweeping social processes, i.e., the shift to information society. It can be supposed that should this trend continue there might occur a substantial narrowing of the potential audience of the traditional art museum leaving it with only the core elite audience.

Key words: a potential targeted audience of art museums, audience of the traditional art museum, sociological studies of art museum, students in the museum.

 Chesnokova M.N. “Schema” in the Museum Exhibition — 74 (Rus.)

Chesnokova, Maria Nikolaevna — Candidate of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Culture, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg,

The article considers the museum display as a sign system, substantiates the possibility
of applying the concept of “Schema” to the methods of creating a museum display, describes examples of museum display varieties. The ability of a museum object to act as a sign, that is, a representative of some object, is its inherent property. By a sign, we mean an object that replaces some object, property, or relation and makes it possible to accumulate, store, process, and transmit information. “Schema”, in a broad sense, represents any language means, including tropes, that give speech imagery and expressiveness. The museum display, considered as a text created by material objects that act as signs, allows you to discover the use of tropes not only as a means of expression, but also as a structure-forming basis. Museum “text”, which is built from museum objects, each of which has a range of cultural meanings, cannot have an unambiguous semantic certainty. A productive and promising way of creating new exhibition is seen as a harmonious combination of the semantic and aesthetic unity of the display, “readable” in the sign system, on the one hand, and the unique value of museum objects inherent in them, regardless of the exhibition context, on the other.
Key words: museum, display, exhibition, exhibit, sign, sign system, schema, metaphor,
metonymy, trope.


 Andreeva I.V. Platbands of Black Source Stores: Museum Project in Forming a Territory Brand — 82 (Rus.)

Andreeva, Irina Valerievna — Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk,

Museum of platbands “Artsy balusters” is a project of ArtResidence of the tourist cluster
«Belaya Mountain». It was created in the village Chernoistochinsk, Sverdlovsk region in the summer of 2020. The project was initiated by local artists, teachers, entrepreneurs, concerned about the loss of the original appearance of the village, which once delighted with the diversity and sophistication of the architectural. In the 19th century in Chernoistochinsk, an architectural complex of a five-walled house with a covered courtyard, many windows and a developed decor system was formed. The samples of platbands collected by volunteers-art-residents and their observations and photographs testify to the woodworking culture developed by the artisans of Chernoistochinsk for a long time, which made it possible to perform complex reliefs and compositions.
Variations of window platbands combined the North Russian tradition of openwork
carving and a contrastingly colored relief carving, which is characteristic of Central Russia. The influence of the architecture of stone buildings in the territorially close town of Nizhniy Tagil determined the stylistic gravitation of the decor of the platbands to the Baroque and Classicism. A relevant form of preservation of platbands is museumification of an object in the environment, which is what the efforts of art residents are directed to. They also created the exposition of the Museum of platbands in the former production room of the Demidov plant. The main display technique is «exhibit in focus». Experiments on the valorization of an object are based on
the “frame-border” mythologeme: the transformation of the platbands into theatrical backstage, a screen and decorations, a frame for a mirror and a poster, a decorative edging of a display rack for creative works, and an installation for a photo zone. The pedagogical practice of working with children actively introduces performances of a children’s theater, full-scale sketches of the facades of houses and their platbands, the creation of thematic bookplates in the technique of linocut. The experience of the Museum «Pretentious balusters» is an example of complex, delicate and delicate work that makes the preservation of heritage an element of brand formation.
Key words: brand, territory promotion, Chernoistochinsky Demidov plant, Ural art of
house carving, window platbands, platbands museum, valorization, ArtResidence.

 Abroskina E.V. Between the Hammer and the Sickle: the Fate of the Representation of the Culture of Koreans in the Jewish Autonomous Region in the State Museum of Ethnography in 1937— 92 (Rus.)

Abroskina, Evgeniia Vyacheslavovna — Master of Arts (in Museology), the Research Fellow, the Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Moscow,

The article is devoted to the study of archival materials of the Russian Ethnographic Museum on the preparation of an exposition dedicated to the culture of Koreans in the Jewish Autonomous Region, which was to be part of the exhibition “Jews in Tsarist Russia and the USSR”. The author examines the process of collecting materials for the exposition during the Birobidzhan expedition to the Jewish Autonomous Region, and also reconstructs and analyzes the exposition project in detail. The exposition was supposed to show the difficult fate of the Korean people in tsarist Russia, the positive changes in the culture and life of Koreans under Soviet rule, at the same time reflecting the cultural “vestiges” of modern Koreans. Korean culture, in contrast to the culture of the Jewish colonialists or the Tungus-Manchu peoples, occupied a liminal position in the exposition: it was planned to show it as not fully Sovietized, still possessing primitive forms of economic management and vestiges. Despite the materials collected during the expedition and the developed project, the segment devoted to Korean culture
was withdrawn in connection with the order to deport the Korean population of the Far
East to Central Asia in 1937. The author of the article analyzes these events as one of the examples of state intervention in the museum space in the USSR.
Key words: Russian Ethnographic Museum, Korean culture, Jewish Autonomous Region, ethnography, deportation.

  Tkhapa L.R. Practices of Museum Reconstruction in Russian and Foreign Palaces-Museums — 104 (Rus.)

Tkhapa, Lolita Radzhanovna — Master of Arts (in Museology), the Chief Curator of the
Collection, the Paleontological and Stratigraphic Museum of the Department of Natural History Collections, the Division for Expositions and Collections, Saint Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article is devoted to a comparative analysis of the practice of using museum reconstruction method in Russian and foreign palaces-museums. Initially, the concept of palaces museumification assumed the preservation of the interiors in their authenticity. However, time has shown the impossibility of implementing such a plan, since furniture and decorative art, sculpture, paintings, as well as architectural elements, stucco, textile decoration of historical palaces were completely or partially lost due to the different reasons. These circumstances led to the need to apply the method of museum reconstruction to create an integral image of the palace-museum as a cultural phenomenon. In the context of the palaces museumification, this method is used both for the reconstruction of the architectural, artistic and applied decoration, and for the reconstruction of palace culture and everyday life. Using the method of museum reconstruction allows maximizing the potential of the historical palace: to present its interiors as an artwork, to ensure the revalorization of the historical palace as an architectural monument and to revitalize some elements of the palace life and culture that have been lost due to historical, sociocultural and political changes. The wide possibilities of using this method in the palaces-museums spaces are confirmed by the rich practical experience of Russian and foreign museum reconstruction of palace interiors.
Key words: palace, interior, restoration, reconstruction, museumification.


 Bukharin M.D. Towards the History of Study of Astral Cult in the State of Xi Xia — 115 (Rus.)

Bukharin, Mikhail Dmitrievich — Doctor Habil. in History, Full Member of the Russian
Academy of Sciences, the Chief Researcher, the Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Moscow,

Among the finds made in 1909 in Khara-Khoto, one of the main political and cultural
centers of the state of Xi Xia by the expedition of P.K. Kozlov, were “icons” — portraits interpreted as representations of the planets. The interpretation of some images in the research literature does not seem quite certain, but their identification with planets — real and fictional ones — is generally accepted. There have been preserved draft materials of the study of these images by S.F. Oldenburg in the St. Petersburg branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He placed accents in his analysis much more accurately, without unambiguous associations. The coming publication of the basic source for the study of Buddhist painting — “Descriptions of the caves of Qian-fo-dong near Dun-huang” by S.F. Oldenburg allows us to deepen the analysis of “planetary” images from Khara-Khoto. The earlier idea of identification of one of the images with Yuebo and borrowing of one of its attributes — the severed
head in the hand — in the guise of Mars should probably be corrected. More promising is the search for the influence of the image of Perseus — one of the important astronomical symbols in Classical culture. The image of a warrior holding a head in his hand is also found in the art of Central Asia in the early Middle Ages. Perhaps the image of Perseus migrated along the Great Silk Road from the Mediterranean to Central Asia and the Far East, where it merged and became part of the local iconographic tradition.
Key words: Khara-Khoto, Xi Xia, astral cult, Perseus, Great Silk Road, iconography,

  Popov V.A. Individual Construction in the Cities of the USSR in the 1940–1960th as a Phenomenon of the Late Folk Architecture — 131 (Rus.)

Popov, Vadim Alekseevich — Senior Lecturer, the Volga State Technological University,
Russian Federation, Yoshkar-Ola,

One of the almost unexplored layers of the national cultural heritage — the area of individual building on the outskirts of cities and in horticultural partnerships, — is considered on the example of the city of Yoshkar-Ola. The author positions it as the bearer of folk architectural creativity. This direction of architecture in the 20th century had to function in the conditions of the regulatory role of the state and the impact of rationalizing trends. At the same time, it managed to preserve the characteristic features inherent in folk architecture of any era — the individuality of decisions if faithful to the established scheme, an ensemble approach and the semantic conditioning of artistic details. Practice has shown that the further harmonious development of this environment requires professional control by the state, provided that the alienation of the population from architectural creativity is overcome. Currently, private buildings half a century ago, which have ceased to meet the everyday needs of its inhabitants, are undergoing unprofessional and uncontrolled reconstruction and destroyed. In this regard, the question arises: has it fulfilled the role assigned to it by history and should give way to a different living environment, or is it capable of successively developing, preserving its best qualities and remaining the sphere in which the population can show their creative abilities?

Key words: folk architectural creativity, individual building, city estate, reconstruction,
horticultural partnerships, style priorities.

 Golova L.A. The Attribution of Art Frames from the Collection of the Central Naval Museum after the Emperor Peter the Great: Preliminary Results — 143 (Rus.)

Golova, Lyubov Andreevna — the Junior Research Fellow, the Central Naval Museum after the Emperor Peter the Great, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

This article is dedicated to the attribution of art frames. It includes new data on art frames from the collection of the Central Naval Museum after the Emperor Peter the Great. The study of the article is based on old catalogues, inventory books and photographs of K.K. Bulla. The author has established that art frames are intricately connected with the collection of paintings, their history, and certain aspects of the museum’s acquisition. The researcher identified the author’s frames for several paintings created by such artists as G.M. Manizer, N.I. Povalishin, E.I. Stolitsa, A.P. Bogolyubov, etc. This work establishes that the framing workshops of St. Petersburg
executed a number of these frames. This is the gilding workshop of the French master
A. Jessel and the art workshop of engravings, lithographs, copies, and art frames of the Beggrov family. Special attention is paid to the activities of the latter. On the example of the frame stored in the Naval Museum, the history of the object’s existence, its exposure at international exhibitions and its connection with the life of the outstanding artist A.K. Beggrov is shown.

Key words: attribution, art frame, the Central Naval Museum after the Emperor Peter
the Great, A.K. Beggrov .


 Yanovskaya E.V. History of Free Public Libraries in the Records of Yaroslavl State Archive — 148 (Rus.)

Yanovskaya, Elena Vadimovna — Candidate of Cultural Studies, the Research Fellow, the Yaroslavl Regional Universal Scientific Library named after N.A. Nekrasov, Russian Federation, Yaroslavl,

The article focuses on analysis of the unpublished sources of Yaroslavl State Archive,
which cover the history of free public libraries of Yaroslav guberniya in the late 19th — early 20th centuries. The Russian government created the set of rules for the libraries as a cultural institution. The author shows how the archival documents provide an opportunity to clarify the features of development of the libraries, such as a date and initiators of libraries’ founding, financial and material conditions, a book collection and a list of readers, a role of the provincial and district zemstvo in the history of libraries. The archival documents help to specify the participation of locals in the process of setting of the libraries.

Key words: Yaroslavl State Archive, free public libraries, Yaroslavl guberniya, zemstvo.

  Salm A.A. A.G. Rubinstein Fund at the N.G. Rubinstein Museum of the Moscow Conservatory (On Materials from the Collection of T.L. Bolycheva) — 163 (Rus.)

Salm, Alina Albertovna — the Research Fellow, the N.G. Rubinstein Museum of the Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory, Russian Federation, Moscow,

Тhe article is devoted to the fund of the pianist, composer, teacher, music and public
figure and founder of the St. Petersburg Conservatory A.G. Rubinstein, which is kept in the N.G. Rubinstein Museum of the Moscow Conservatory. It was based on materials from the unique collection of All-Russian state library for foreign literature named after M.I. Rudomino employee T.L. Bolycheva. The article covers the history of the collection and the sources of its formation, gives an overview of the fund through a description of its composition and main topics. More than half of the collection consists of printed sources — posters, concert programs and booklets, notes, including lifetime editions of the composer’s works, and photographs. The literary part is represented, in particular, by memoirs of Anna Antonovna, Rubinstein’s daughter, and “Memories of A.G. Rubinstein” by pianist, composer and teacher L.A. Kashperova. The collection was decorated with 3 busts of the composer and a commemorative medal of 1889, issued for the 50th anniversary of his artistic activity, portraits of A.G. Rubinstein of different authors and artistic works of his great-granddaughter V.B. Mozhanskaya. The small
phono library contains records of some works by A.G. Rubinstein, including fragments of his last, sacred opera “Christ”. Materials from the collection, which became a kind of “chronicle of A.G. Rubinstein’s epoch”, were repeatedly exhibited at T.L. Bolycheva’s author’s exhibitions and formed the basis of A.G. Rubinstein’s home museum.          Key words:Anton G. Rubinstein, Tatyana L. Bolycheva, the Nikolay G. Rubinstein Museum of Moscow Conservatory, Saint-Petersburg Conservatory, collection, exhibition, operas by A.G. Rubinstein, home museum .

 Fomkina M.I. The Fate of the Alexander Palace Photographic Collections in the 1920–1930th. Based on Materials from the Archives of Saint-Petersburg — 178 (Rus.)

Fomkina, Margarita Igorevna — Master of Arts (in Museology), the Independent Researcher, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg,

The article is devoted to the problem of the relocation of the photographic collections of
Nicholas II and his family, which, at the time of the February Revolution of 1917, were kept inside the imperial residence of Alexander Palace. The first twenty years post-revolution saw the formation of the Soviet archival and museum system. The photographs, in the collections of the former imperial palaces, found themselves classed between two categories — firstly, as a paper document, kept together with notebooks, diaries and written correspondence, they were part of the archival world. Secondly, as illustrative material, which was also an integral part of the historical furnishings of the imperial rooms. Despite the fact that archivists seized documents
from Alexander Palace several times, as well as experiencing numerous photographic
donation decrees to the Unified State Archive Fund, the Romanov family photographs were present in large numbers at the exhibition of imperial interiors during the 1920–1930th. This article gives a brief description of the composition of the Alexander Palace photographic collections at the time of the February Revolution. It examines the attitudes of the museum management to these materials, traces some of the ways they relocated from the museum and analyzes the lack of sources on this issue.
Key words: museum, archive, photography, Nicholas II, Alexander Palace.


 Minakov A.S. [Review of:] Literary Museums in Russian History and Culture. All-Russian Academic Conference under the auspices of the Association of Literary Museums of Russia. 2–3 June 2018: a collection of articles / Vladimir Dahl Russian State Literary Museum; chief editor D.P. Bak. Moscow: “Literaturniy Muzey”, 2019. 374 p. ISBN 978–5–6040740–1–5 (print) — 191 (Rus.)

Minakov, Andrei Sergeevich — Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Deputy Director of the Directorate for the Study of History of Moscow Pedagogical State University, Russian Federation, Moscow

The review analyzed a collection of articles based on the results of the All-Russian scientific conference “Literary museums in the context of history and culture”. The conference was held on June 2–3, 2018 by of the Association of Literary Museums of the Union of Russian Museums as part of the business program of the XX International Festival “Intermuseum–2018”. The collection consists of articles on the urgent problems of studying the history of literary museums, on the peculiarities of acquisition of stock collections, on the formation and updating of museum expositions. Many authoritative figures of the museum community have written articles for the collection. They provide a great deal of up-to-date information on the state of literary museum studies in different regions of the country. At the same time, the book culture development became the main topics of the collection. The authors write about the preservation and study of literary libraries, which were an element of the writer’s creative laboratory and formed his daily spiritual atmosphere. They also study the experience of using exhibition space as a platform for applied museum research. The feedback “museum — visitor” received in the collection sounded great as one of the forms of evaluation of the exposition
and stock activities. Besides, the actual issues of museum management, both in retrospect and in modern social and economic conditions, are studied in the book. In general, the collection materials emphasize that literary museums are custodians of historical and cultural heritage, as well as key elements of the modern all-Russian space.
Key words: museology, museum, literary museums, cultural heritage, Intermuseum.

 Andreeva I.V. “Portrait of Mind”, or Heuristics of Inscript — 197 (Rus.)

Andreeva, Irina Valerievna — Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture, Russian Federation, Chelyabinsk,

A review of the catalog of autographs and donations in the personal library of the historian and rector of the Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture Vladimir Yakovlevich Rushanin reveals the heuristically potential of the inscript and the importance of cataloging practice for the reconstruction of the image of the library owner. Inscripts within the framework of bibliological and archaeographic approaches are historical sources on the history of book culture and socio-cultural interactions through the book. The thematic, typological and cultural analysis of the bibliophile collection, which includes 558 autographed editions, allows us to consider the collection as a monument to regional bookishness, and the catalog as a form of its documentation and introduction into scientific circulation.
Key words: museology, bibliology, collection of rare books, personal library, autograph,
inscript, dedication, catalog.

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