MUSEUM. MONUMENT. HERITAGE 1 (13) / 2023
A Problem in Focus: The Material World of the Leningrad Everyday Life of the middle of 20th century: Towards the Heritage
Stepanova, Darya Gennadievna—PhD Student, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Stepanovaemail@example.com
The article is devoted to the consideration of the features of the artistic and plastic language of the “Leningrad style” in applied art through an appeal to the form-decor system. The interaction of form and decoration in a work of art is considered as a stylistic marker that accompanies its historical development. Issues of formal composition, the relationship between decor and form in works of applied art are among the key ones in the problem field of the theory of style formation. Specific formal features that distinguish the works of Leningrad masters from other local styles and schools characterize the “Leningrad style” in applied art. The evolution of forms in works of applied and industrial art of the “Leningrad style” is due to the progressive movement from reminiscences of classicist and empire motifs to the search for a new artistic language, as a way of adequately expressing a new urban identity. The main function of the decorative elements of works of the “Leningrad style” is expressed in supporting the main movements of form and allegorical content. The absence of an ethnic foundation, the influence of the Russian avant-garde and academic artistic tradition determined the originality of the expressive language of the “Leningrad style”, as well as its development from direct stylization to free artistic transformation, based on the cultural and historical heritage of the city, educational base and ideological platform uniting the artists of Leningrad.
Key words: applied art, Soviet art, “Leningrad style”, Soviet art, form, decor.
Bakieva, Diana Airatovna—Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Assistant, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org
The article analyzes the relationship between the definitions “thing” and “object” in the humanities, and also examines their relationship with the categories “everyday life” and “everyday life”. The interest of the museum community in the “ideological world” of the Soviet era is substantiated. The trends in the increase in the number of Soviet-era exhibits in the collections of domestic museums are traced, as well as the desires of curators to update the sociocultural meanings of these objects in permanent exhibitions and temporary exhibitions that recreate the bygone period. The importance of the communicative method of interaction between a museum object and the viewer (interpreter) is emphasized. The structure of dialogue practices existing in St. Petersburg between exhibitions built on the basis of Soviet everyday objects and the museum visitor is proposed. The elements of the structure include macro-dialogue (associated with the organization of exhibition space, recreating the generalized environment of a specific time, focused on the “effect of presence”, and also introducing the viewer to existing socio-cultural and aesthetic ideals); mesodialogue (marked by the need to present significant phenomena that are represented by specific objects. At the indicated level of dialogue organization, the characteristics of objects, the stages and dynamics of the development of a certain process represented by a number of objects, the content components of their creation and the situations of their existence may be of interest); microdialogue (within the framework of which the picture of the routine practices of Soviet people is recreated using the example of a specific thing).
Key words: thing, object, Soviet everyday life, museum, communication, dialogue.
Malyugina Yu.E. The Principle of Collage in the Packaging of Leningrad Art Industry Enterprises of the 1950–1960s (on the Example of Surprise and Travel Sets from the Collection of the Museum “XXs years After the War. Museum of Everyday Culture of Leningrad 1945–1965”) — 22 (Rus.)
Malyugina, Yulia Evgenievna—PhD Student, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, email@example.com
The phenomenon of collage, which emerged in the early 20th century thanks to the creative searches of P. Picasso, J. Brague, H. Griss, is clearly traceable in the industrial art of Leningrad in the 1950–1960s from the position of the principle that combines the combination of different materials in everyday products and technical methods of painting in the context of porcelain plastics. The author of the research made an attempt to study the basic characteristics of the principle, manifested in the material carriers—“surprise boxes” and “travel kits” from the collection of the Museum “XX years after the war. Museum of Everyday Culture of Leningrad 1945–1960” in Saint-Peterburg. The conclusion is made that collage becomes a part of the everyday culture of the soviet man.
Key words: collage principle, packaging, art industry enterprises of Leningrad in the
1950–1960s , “surprise boxes”, “travel kits”, everyday culture.
Podolskaya, Kseniya Sergeevna—Candidate of Art History, Senior Lecturer, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, fonpodol@ gmail.com
The study of the material space of everyday life of a post-Soviet person demonstrates a movement from the tendencies of the eclectic features of the “Eurostyle” of the 2000s to the European functionalism of the 2010s . Elements of living environment design, proposed by significant representatives of northern European functionalism, the largest of which was the Swedish company IKEA, filled the homes of Russian consumers, forming a seemingly new type of interior, built on the role of functional details and laconic accents. And although these trends in the interior were perceived by the consumer as novelty, an alternative to the outdated trends of the post-Soviet “Eurostyle” of the late 1990s—early 2000s , the history of Soviet technical aesthetics and design shows that such a logic for designing the living environment was already relevant in the 1960s . This study touches upon the development of small-scale plastic objects in circulation, their existence in the Russian interior of the 2010s , and the connection of these objects with the material culture of the Soviet period of the 1960s . Such interior elements become an important part of the everyday space and directly influence the formation of the living environment, can tell about the personality and interests of their owner. As part of the study, a comparative analysis of products of Leningrad porcelain factories and interior elements from IKEA is carried out. Key words: interior, Soviet minimalism, small plastic art, art industry, Leningrad porcelain factories, IKEA.
Nikonova, Antonina Alexandrovna—Candidate of Science in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Head of Educational Program “Museology and Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage”, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, a.nikonova@ spbu.ru
The article is devoted to the analysis of the disciplinary field of the museum in the context of the development of humanitarian knowledge, to identify the correlation of interdisciplinary synthesis in theoretical and applied research of museology. An attempt is made to highlight the contradictions of interdisciplinary research in the museum space.
Key words: museum, museology, interdisciplinary approach, museum topos, humanitarian knowledge, disciplinarity.
Peycheva, Anna Yuryevna—leading methodologist for museum and educational activities, the State Russian Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, aupeycheva@yandex
In 2022, after several years of controversy, a new definition of the term «museum» was adopted. According to the decision of the members of the International Council of Museums (ICOM), it is “an organization in the service of society that explores, collects, preserves, interprets and displays the tangible and intangible heritage”. According to the new definition, museums should promote diversity and sustainability by offering diverse experiences for learning, entertainment, reflection and knowledge sharing. Thus, the museum today is a carrier of expert knowledge and an educational platform for the younger generation. In this article, based on this approach, the author explores the current forms of work with teenage and student audiences, teachers of educational institutions in the space of an art museum. The stages of creating a museum-educational video course «Art and Science», which combines fine arts and natural sciences and reveals the educational potential of the museum, are highlighted. The author focuses on the importance of the meta-subject approach as a new educational technology and its relevance for modern education.
Key words: metasubjectivity, interdisciplinarity, museum pedagogy, fine arts, science, natural sciences, painting technique, biology, chemistry, painting, education, museum.
Gerasimov, Grigory Ivanovich —Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Tula Museum of weapons, Russian Federation, Tula, firstname.lastname@example.org
The article examines an important stage in the history of the Tula State Museum of Weapons from the standpoint of the author’s idealistic approach from the moment it was restored in 1924, as the Soviet Arms Museum at the Tula Arms Plants, to the evacuation to the Urals during the Great Patriotic War. During this period, the weapons museum developed in accordance with the national museum policy, determined by the communist ideology. New ideas determined not only the exposition, forms and content of the work, but also the composition of its funds. The ideological guidelines determined the personnel composition, the content of the exposition, excursion lectures, and other forms of museum work. The main attention was paid to preserving the memory of the revolutionary events of the twentieth century, the achievements of Soviet power and socialist construction. During this period, there was a multiple increase in the museum collection. An exposition has been created, from the standpoint of communist ideology, showing the evolution of weapons and weapons production. Ideological turns were reflected not only in the content of the exposition, but sometimes also in the composition of the museum fund. At the end of the 1930s in the leadership of the Tula Arms Plant, its party organization, a meaningful discussion unfolded about the goals, objectives and ways of developing the museum. During the discussion, views on the purpose and tasks of the museum, the forms of its work were determined, a large-scale development program was developed, the implementation of which was prevented by the war.
Key words: Tula Museum of Weapons, idealistic approach to history, Soviet museum policy, influence of ideology on the museum.
Yuphereva, Polina Sergeevna—Research Fellow, Museum of Autotransport of Leningrad, SPb GUP “Passazhiravtotrans”, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, email@example.com;
Chernousov Fyodor Grigorievitch—Director, Museum of Autotransport of Leningrad, SPb GUP “Passazhiravtotrans”, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, fedorchernousov@ gmail.com.
The article touches upon the topic of the tradition of a place mission. The need for museumification of the places, which can be used to reveal the features of a particular craft or industry, is justified on the basis of the history of the Stable Department and the Stable Museum. The problem of preserving the memory of a place is considered as a complex sociocultural phenomenon, the importance of which is updated not only for the scientific community, but also for society as a whole.
Key words: Konjushennyj museum, Konjushennaja square, museumification, transport museum.
Demidova, Yulia Sergeevna—Bachelor of Museology, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org
In 1931, a demonstration of the Foucault pendulum experiment was held in St. Isaac’s Cathedral, which marked the opening of the State Antireligious Museum in the cathedral. The profile of the museum was transformed and finally changed after the Great Patriotic War, when the main object of the presentation began to be St. Isaac’s Cathedral itself with its history and artistic design. The article is devoted to the analysis of visitors’ assessment of the museum’s activity in the first post-war years. The source base for the study is the archival books of the museum’s reviews, dated from December 1948 to February 1951, which have not been previously introduced into scientific circulation. The visitors’ reviews of the exposition work and excursion service in the museum are considered from the point of view of the museum’s educational and upbringing functions in accordance with its profile (“museum-monument”) and the current political and ideological course of the state, which implied, among other things, scientific and atheistic propaganda. The visitors’ evaluations can be divided into several semantic blocks: reviews of St. Isaac’s Cathedral as a monument; reviews of the excursions conducted in the museum in general and the professional qualities of individual guides; reviews of the museum’s anti-religious propaganda and Foucault’s pendulum, in particular, as well as visitors’ comments and suggestions for improving the museum’s work in certain aspects of its activities.
Key words: reviews, museum in St. Isaac’s Cathedral, tours, antireligious propaganda, historical and artistic education.
Popov, Vadim Alekseevich—senior lecturer, the Volga State Technological University, Russian Federation, Yoshkar-Ola, email@example.com
The history of development in Yoshkar-Ola has many examples of delayed architectural styles. The most characteristic examples, starting from the 18th century, are considered in this article. The era of the New Age was distinguished by the fact that a clear division into the capital and the province was determined in the artistic development, and this left its mark on the duration and shift of the periods of architectural styles. The difference in time was not of a formal nature, it was expressed in a peculiar way in the buildings of “transitional” architecture in the form of unusual interpretations of well-known motifs Even more indicative in this regard is the 20th century, when the decisive influence of politics on architecture did not allow one or another style to fully realize its artistic potential. The delay in the change of styles in Yoshkar-Ola became even more noticeable due to the increase in the administrative status of the city and the significant growth of its population. The intensive process of urbanization required strict adherence to general trends, while at the same time, architects, as in past centuries, preferred to follow traditions. This phenomenon has often brought interesting results which forces us to reconsider the point of view established in the literature on the relationship between “advanced” and “backward” in architecture.
Key words: archaism, architectural style delay, traditions, baroque, classicism, modern, constructivism, Stalin’s Empire style, transitional style.
Hookk, Daria Yurievna—PhD in Phylology, Senior Researcher, the State Hermitage Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org;
Senotrusova Polina Olegovna—PhD in History, Senior Researcher, the Siberian Federal University, Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk, email@example.com
The term Digital Humanities has been used since 2004, after the publication of “A Companion to Digital Humanities”, which outlined a range of researches in this area. This includes computational linguistics, digital history, digital anthropology, data visualization methods, multimedia, and much more. Siberian Federal University, in particular, is engaged in training specialists who in the future will be involved in the preservation and actualization of historical and cultural heritage in general and archaeological sites in particular. Summer practice has been successfully held at the State Hermitage Museum for the last 10 years. Digitization of cultural heritage is a priority, but the tasks are solved each time differently. The total result of scientific cooperation is presented annually at scientific conferences and reflected in publications. The accumulated experience served as an impetus for the development of the Master’s degree program “Virtual Archaeology”, aimed at training specialists with the skills of practical application of digital technologies in archaeological research and museum practice.
Key words: Virtual archaeology, Hermitage Museum, Siberian Federal University, Professional Traning, Digital Technologies, Museum Studies, Virtual Reality, Photogrammetry, Digital Humanities.
Savchenko, Sofia Konstantinovna — MA in Museology, Curator of Funds, Military Medical Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org
The use of military photographs in a museum exhibition can fit into the memory policy relevant to its time—as in all memory structures, including autobiographical, the museums implants the events into a consistent narrative aimed at forming a collective, national and personal identity in the present. The authorities to fix the image of the past necessary for a particular memory policy use museums. In this article we will consider the types and methods of showing military photography used in the permanent exhibitions of the Museum of the Defense and Blockade of Leningrad from the moment of its creation to the present.
Key words: military photography, historical museum, Museum of the Defense and Blockade of Leningrad, politics of memory.
Biryukova, Marina Valerievna—Doctor of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, email@example.com
Considering the context of the “museum boom” of recent decades and the emergence of a wide variety of museums, including in St. Petersburg—from the Museum of Cats and the Vodka Museum to the Museum of Gaming Machines and the Museum of Illusions, it seems strange that such popular content as fashion and fashion trends of various eras, up to the present, has not been embodied in a large-scale autonomous museum project. The Fashion Museum or “Costume Gallery” in the State Hermitage Museum’s Storage Facility, which is a division of the largest museum, primarily demonstrates the historical costume collections of the museum, numerous private collections and exhibition projects dedicated to fashion, do not exhaust the need for a full-fledged presentation of artifacts illustrating the evolution of fashion. This article is devoted to the prospects and possibilities of creating a specialized fashion museum in St. Petersburg. Key words: fashion museum, fashion evolution, fashion museology, costume exposition, fashion history, fashion designers’ exhibition projects, phenomenon of fashion.
Tuminskaya O.A. “Red Poppy”: Culture of Everyday Life. [Review of:] Sapanzha O.S., Balandina N.A. “Red Poppy” and Soviet Culture of Everyday Life. Historical Essays on the 95th Anniversary of the Ballet. Saint-Petersburg: NP-Print Press, 2022. 90 p. ISBN 978–5–6047944–8–7 — 130 (Rus.)
Tuminskaya, Olga Anatolievna—Doctor of Art History, Head of the Sector of Aesthetic Education, Methodic Department, the State Russian Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org
The author of the review examines the work of St. Petersburg contemporary researchers published in 2022 on the role of the art of ballet in Soviet culture and Soviet everyday life of the post-revolutionary and the post-war periods. Key words: ballet, everyday life, “Red Poppy”.
Download full issue MUSEUM. MONUMENT. HERITAGE. 1 (13) / 2023