Current ussue

MUSEUM — MONUMENT — HERITAGE 2 / 2017

A Problem in Focus: Museum and Visitors in the Age of Museum Boom

Drikker A.S. Museum Boom: Positive, Negative, Prospects — 5 (Rus.)

Drikker Alexander Samoylovitch — Doctor of Science in Culturology, Professor, Saint Petersburg State University, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, asdrikker@mail.ru.

The article considers the turbulent blossoming of the museum continuing more half a century. The museum boom is analyzed as the result of social and technological progress. A cultural revolution on the museum front leads to formation of democratic museum and «new museology» which are based on resolute change of ideals and ideology in comparison with a museum-temple concept. Now an ordinary person and his (her) interests are at the head of a corner. The priorities of the modern museum are following: topicality, democratic character, availability. A new museum successfully solves the problems reduced by democratic culture. The positive of global expansion of museum is obvious. However today «museum» is most likely only a fashion brand. A democratic museum boom is a productive palliative in the conditions of essential deficiency of time and a resource for rise of cultural level. The today’s «museum revival» is a symptom of exhaustion of the cultural phase of «museum temple» which has generated remarkable sanctuaries of knowledge and inspiration. The era of the museum temple has come to the finish. A democratic museum, with all pluses and minuses, is one of the search attempts of now unknown temple forms.
Key words: museum temple, cultural revolution, progress, democratic museum, reduction, museum boom, new museology.

 Ushkarev A.A. Art Museum: The Leisure Role — 12 (Rus.)

Ushkarev, Alexander Anatolievitch — Candidate of Science in Art History, Associate Professor, Senior Research Fellow, The State Institute for Art Studies, Russia, Moscow, al_ush@mail.ru.

In the «civilization of leisure» era, despite the release of time, individual-free time (i.e.
actually leisure) in general time budget of a modern man getting less, but directions of its expend becomes less, but the ways of its spending become more different. Free time becomes predominantly the time for entertainment, which, along with increased competition in the market of leisure, is dramatically changing the role of art.
The article presents some results of the study, one of the tasks of which was an attempt
to assess the real recreational role of art, as well as its dynamics over the last three decades. The basis for this study was the large data sets of sociological polls conducted by the State Institute for Art Studies in the cities of Russia with the aim of researching the human attitudes to art. Retrospective analysis revealed the conditioning of cultural and recreational behavior of people and the role of art in their lives by cardinal macro-social changes taking place in the country. The author also evaluates the socio-cultural risks that may result from the change in the leisure role of art.
Key words: leisure, free time, leisure structure, types of leisure, preferences, leisure role of art.

Potapova M.V., Potyukova E.V. The Museum Boom: Myths and Reality (Based on the Results of the Sociological Studies at the State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg) — 22 (Rus.)

Potapova, Marina Vasilievna — Candidate of Science in Philosophy, Head of The Department of Applied Sociology and the Youth Services, the State Russian Museum, Russia, Saint- Petersburg, marinnna@mail.ru;
Potyukova, Ekaterina Vladimirovna — Leading Research Fellow, the State Russian museum, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, ekaterinkap@gmail.com.

The article presents the analysis of the sociological surveys of the Russian Museum’s visitors, aimed to enlighten the mechanisms of the «museum boom» in Russia in 2016–2017. The «museum boom» is an unexampled high influx of visitors to the anniversary exhibitions of V. Serov and I. Aivazovsky in the State Tretyakov Gallery and the State Russian Museum and as well as Open days in the State Russian Museum (free admission). Open days otherwise known as «The Art of conserving», organized by Sberbank to celebrate the 175th anniversary of bank’s establishment, in the autumn of 2016. The event took place in 17 Russian cities. The sociological surveys have shown that these events in fact did not attract the visitors outside of the cohort of occasional museum-goers. The event rather mobilized those who were infrequently visiting the same museum. The high number of visitors attracted by Aivazovsky’s exhibition might be simply explained by the fact that he is the most famous Russian artist. The popularity
of the event «Open days in the State Russian Museum» was largely defined by not high
income, social and economic status of typical museum visitors. We conclude that the increase of the number of museum visitors during the «boom» may not be explained simply by the increased interest for the art in the general population. To estimate the driving force leading to the increased museum attendance the specialized research is required.
Keywords: the audience of fine art museum, art museums and culture, the cultural policy, the sociology of art.

Popravko E.A.«Public Participation» Museum as the Indicator of «Museum Boom»: A case study of the Primorsky Kray — 31 (Rus.)

Popravko, Elena Alexandrovna — Doctor of Science in History, Professor, Army General A.V. Hrulev Military Academy of Logistics, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, elena_popravko@mail.ru.

Appearance of «public participation» museums was оne of the main indicators of the
«museum boom» in the USSR. It was connected with the holding of the first Museums Contest of in 1957. The authorities recognized and began to take into account another category of institutions — on «public participation». On the example of Primorsky Kray, the forming of a «public participation» museums network was considered as a typical phenomenon of the «museum boom» in the region: from spontaneous attempts of people to form «public participation» museums in the 1930s — the first half of the 1950s till the efforts of the local authorities to increase the region museum network precisely at the expense of the museums of this group. In this article were investigated the reasons for latent «public participation» museums in the center and in the localities: 1) the reaction to the «golden decade of local investigation», which ended with repression; 2) fear of local authorities to legalize «raw» initiatives; 3) lack of funding, etc.There are calculated «public participation» museums that had been created in PrimorskyKrayfrom 1930th to сurrent time. The reasons for the instability of this museums are analyzed, as well as the forms of institutionalization for «public participation» museums: participation in museums contests, getting the title «People’s Museum», transferring to state museum, etc.
Key words: museum boom, «public participation» museum, Primorsky Kray.

 Szűcs O. PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICE OF A TRANSFORMING MUSEUM: A CASE STUDY OF MUSEUM OF APPLIED ARTS IN BUDAPEST — 41 (Eng.)

Szűcs, Olga — Candidate of Science in Philosophy, Associate Professor, the Debrecen
University, Hungary, Debrecen, szucsolga3@gmail.com.

In this article we will talk about that concrete experience that the author acquired while
being the first in Hungary Marketing Director of a big state museum during the times when cultural institutions were undergoing transformation.This transformation was and still is accompanied by not only drastic changes in the social and economic system but also in the paradigm. The author of this article divides the post-soviet transformation era into two periods, the main point of the first one is the transfer of cultural institutions towards market oriented principles of existence. At the stage of changes the issues of ontological nature regarding the point of culture existence have not emerged yet whereas the second one — which is still happening nowadays — already raises issues representing a more important agenda: will it be possible at all to preserve the institution of a museum together with the other tasks dictated by centuries.In her message the author of this article touches upon the first stage of transformation from the former relations towards the new ones only. Through analyzing her rich experience the author is trying to identify the cause-and-effect- relationships of functioning problems that
one of the biggest and most important museums of Europe — the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest — was facing in its everyday life.

Key words: cultural marketing, practice, transformation, values.

Kitsenko O.S., Komissarova E.V. Museum as the Space of Cross-Cultural Communication (Based on the Example of Museum of the History of Volgograd State Medical University) — 49 (Rus.)

Kitsenko, Olga Sergeevna — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor, Research Fellow, Museum of Volgograd State Medical University, Russia, Volgograd, museum@volgmed.ru; Komissarova, Elena Vasilievna — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor, Director of Museum of Volgograd State Medical University, Russia, Volgograd, museum@volgmed.ru.

The article analyzes the contribution of Volgograd state medical university museum in the development of international communication. Conversion of museum peace in the second half of XX century it became the manifestation of the enveloped the world community processes of democratization, national liberation motion, development of international communication service. The specific character of the university museums, which play key role in the development of science, formations and cultures, was reflected in scientific discourse of museology. Museum the history of Volgograd state medical university achieves the functions: the documentation of the history of university; retention, study and public the idea of the monuments of its history; educational-developmental activity. The basis of museum communication is the exposure, which facilitates the translation of the traditions of university, to the extension of knowledge of students for the history of medicine, training of medical ethics, that contributes
to the formation of the attractive image of University. The international activity of University was reflected in the collection and exposure of museum: the instruction of foreign citizens, international collaboration in the sphere of science and formation. Graduate University’s diploma was obtained more than 4 thousand citizens from 122 the countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe. Museum transfers the atmosphere of benevolence in the relations between the foreign students and the instructors. The memorial collections of colleagues of University tell about their contribution to development of public health of the countries of Asia and Africa. Museum contributes to the sociocultural adaptation of foreign students, to an increase inthe effectiveness in the educational process of training medical personnel for different regions of peace, to the formation of the attractive means of Russia for the world community.
Key words: museum, history, medical university, museum communication, international
communication.

Museology — Museum Studies

 Andreeva I.V. Museology and Document-communication Disciplines: Parallels, Crossing, or Something More? (Part 2) — 59 (Rus.)

Andreeva, Irina Valerievna — Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Associate Professor,
Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture, Russia, Chelyabinsk, andreevairina7@com.ru.
The article analyzes the prospects for the use of documental approach to the analysis of study of the museum object in general. In the arrival is suggested the rationale for disciplinary adaptation of the term document in museology and development of the concept of museum’s document as an important theoretical construct that can serve as the basis of documental approach. The museum document in the general scope of the document concept is its special dimension, and the museum object is a private one. Introduction to the museum of hierarchy of concepts based on the term «document» opens the possibility of implementing a logical cognitive procedure of ascent from the abstract to the concrete. Modern museologists emphasize the relativity of each link in the chain of oppositions «document — a subject of museum significance — a museum object — an exhibit». Introduction of the term «document» allows you to build a hierarchical system of properties and features of the same thing at different levels of its document status, and not reduce them to the general properties and functions of the
museum subject (informativeness, expressiveness, attractiveness, associativity, etc.). As a result of extrapolation of the documentological terminology system in museology, a fundamental system of private scientific concepts that construct a museological picture of the world can be substantiated.
Key words: museology, document-communication sciences, documentology, document, museum object, museology document.

Petrov A.V. The Museum of History and Regional Studies as the Phenomenon of Actualization of a Man’s Ability to Evoke Memories — 67 (Rus.)

Petrov, Anton Valerievich — Candidate of Science in Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow, Tosno Museum of History and Regional Studies, Russia, Tosno, ant1597@yandex.ru.

The article is devoted to the analysis of influence of the museum of history and regional
studies as a socio-cultural phenomenon on human reminiscences. The author identifies three main museum mechanisms that contribute to the actualization of anthropological memories: the mechanism of communication, the mechanism of influence of exposition image on human memories, the mechanism of exposure of individual historical subjects on the appearance of visitor’s reminiscences. The first mechanism presupposes an informative saturation of the museum exposition, the elements of which are combined into «text». The exhibition «opens» to the visitor, like a page with a narrative in the book. This narrative «offers» the excursionist to enter into a «dialogue» about the past, therefore reminiscences appear to the guest of the museum of history and regional studies. The second mechanism is realized due to the imitative imagery of the exposition, which immerses the viewer into the atmosphere of another reality. The exhibition creates a sensual association and memories for the visitor with the help
of the integrity of the exposure image, which is «loaded» into the mind of the visitor. The third mechanism consists of the impact of single subjects, referring to archetypes, and containing historical significance, on anthropological memories that are based on «collective memory». The influence of individual subjects on a man’s memory is realized through the excursionist’s touch with things which bear the trace of his creator.
Key words: museum of history and regional studies, memory, man, reminiscence, ability, text, museum subject, exposition.

Ermatsans I.A. The Conceptualization of a Natural Object as a Text: Museum Aspect — 77 (Rus.)

Ermatsans, Irina Anatolyevna — Candidate of Science in Philosophy, The Junior Research Fellow, The Paleontological museum of Amur Research Center, Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Blagoveschensk, irina@amurnc.ru.
The article presents the experience of reflection aimed at natural formations, such as fossil bone remains of dinosaurs. They are considered as «text» of nature. For «reading» of the inherent nature science requires special knowledge. «Contact» person and natural object, is defined as the act of «communication». Stand out stage «communication». «Communication» with the object of nature is the cause of historical and cultural «text». Modern technical and technological advances have made it possible to present the results of «reading» natural science «text». This is facilitated by interactive museums (the Darwin Museum in Moscow (Russia), the science Museum
in Toronto (Canada), etc.). Using the technology of 3D simulation virtual surround creates precise copies of Museum objects are restored the integrity of the surviving parts, reconstructed external form preserved bone remains. Russian and foreign museums are successfully using augmented reality technology, which allows us to understand the achievements of science.
Key words: museum, museology, text, communication.

Museum

Brinyuk N.Yu., Budko A.A. The Military-Medical Museum:
Towards the History of Development and Formation of Collections
 — 83 (Rus.)

Brinyuk, Nadezhda Yurievna — Candidate of Science in History, The Research Fellow, the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, brinyuk2013@yandex.ru;
Budko, Anatoly Andreevitch — Doctor of Science in Medicine, Professor, Director of the
Military-Medical Museum, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, medmuseum@mail.ru.

2017 marks the 75th anniversary of the foundation of the Military Medical Museum. During these years the museum had took its particular place in the national museum community. The Military Medical Museum, established in the years of the great Patriotic war, is a successor of the traditions of the pre-existed medical museums in Russia. The article considers the history of its predecessors, the peculiarities of acquisition and scientific description of its funds, the cooperation with the largest museums of St. Petersburg and Russia. Due to the richness of its collection, the museum was named “the medical Hermitage”. Its most important component is the personal funds of major figures of Russian medicine. These funds were completed from different sources and contain a comprehensive material that characterizing the professional activity and life of many Russian and Soviet doctors. One of the most extensive of these is the fund of the great Russian surgeon N.I. Pirogov. Personal funds of the Military Medical Museum serve as a source for writing biographies of scientists and doctors, for the reconstitution the history of the creation and development of scientific research institutions and
medical schools in Russia. Currently, the established personal funds are being replenished and new are being formed. Each of them is the basis for the memorial museum of the outstanding figure of domestic medicine.
Key words: medical museums, the Military Medical Museum, the experience of the military medical service, personal funds, medical figures, the history of military medicine and civilian health care.

Bronnikova E.P. The Fates of Museum Workers of Arkhangelsk in 1920–1930th — 95 (Rus.)

Bronnikova, Evgenia Petrovna — Research Fellow, Arkhangelsk Museum of Local Lore
(1978–2015), Russia, Saint-Petersburg, shusha1.bronnikova@yandex.ru.

The article is dedicated to the hard fates of Arkhangelsk museum workers in the 1920–1930s. During tough years in the history of our country they were preserving and increasing museum collections, defending monuments, many of which were unique, from the new regime. Their names were not very well known at times. Some of them had contributed to the formation of museum collections even before 1917 (I.M. Sibirtsev, N.A. Golubtsov, K.P. Reva, A.N. Popov, K.N. Lyubarsky) and pursued their activities. Others appeared in the North under different circumstances.
T.S. Burlakina, the worker of the Vologda Museum, came to Arkhangelsk at the
invitation of the local authorities. V.A. Tonkov graduated from the Kazan Educational Institute. Over the years of his management at the museum many outstanding people were working for or cooperating with him. At that time they stayed in Arkhangelsk in administrative exile: B.N. Molas, V.I. Smirnov, N.V. Olitskaya (Surovtseva), B.M. Zubakin, A.A. Evdokimov, A.S. Komelova, N.A. Fursey. Unfortunately, lives of most of them ended in Stalin’s camps. The article is based on the State Archives of the Arkhangelsk region, the Archives of the Regional
Department of the Federal Security Office and the academic Archives of Arkhangelsk
Museum of Local Lore. Many of the documents are being introduced into scientific discourse for the first time. References, as well as biographical sources, newspaper publications and oral memories of the director of Arkhangelsk Regional Museum of Local Lore Yuri Pavlovich Prokopyev were used to write this article.
Key words: Northern Regional Museum, Arkhangelsk Association of Local Lore, museum collections, monuments, repression, administrative exile.

  Ryazantsev N.P., Salova Yu.G. The Art Museum of Yaroslavl in 1930–1960th. — 105 (Rus.)

Ryazantsev, Nikolay Pavlovich — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor,
Yaroslavl branch of Moscow State University of Railway Engineering, Russia, Yaroslavl,
razansev@yandex.ru;
Salova, Yulia Gennadievna — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor, P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University, Russia, Yaroslavl, yugs58@gmail.com.

The article focuses on the formation of a new state policy in the field of museums in the
1930s. It reveals the factors that influenced the work of art museums. It discusses changes in the activities of the Yaroslavl Art Museum after the National Museum Congress of 1930, creating Departments of Soviet Art and Architecture Museum. Here are shown expansion of exhibition areas, replenishment, restoration of works of art, cooperation with the Tretyakov gallery, personnel update, as well as obtaining a new status — the Museum of Art. The importance of adopting a Provision of the Yaroslavl Regional Museum of Art and its implementation are stressed. The work of the Museum with professional and amateur artists is shown. The article explores the issues of evacuation of cultural values, the activities of the Museum for militarypatriotic
education during the years of the Great Patriotic War. It shows the main changes in
the regulatory framework for the activities of museums in the 1940–1950th. It analyzes the considerable growth of Art Museum attendance, personnel update: renewal of the collection of Soviet Art, the creation of traveling exhibitions for industrial, agricultural enterprises, educational institutions of the region. Here is emphasizes the expansion of the scientific, exhibition and publishing activities. There is a new level of performance of Art Museum in the Yaroslavl Museum-reserve.
Key words: governance structure of museums, new legislation on museums, evacuation of art treasures, preservation of monuments of ancient art, research, exhibition activities, Museum-reserve.

Ivanova E.V. The Exhibitions of Works of Fine and Decorative Arts
in Museum Complexes of Pushkin-city in 1946–1950th
 — 120 (Rus.)

Ivanova, Ekaterina Vyacheslavovna — specialist in the registration of museums objects,
the State Museum-Reserve «Tsarskoye Selo», Russia, Saint-Petersburg, degit2406@yandex.ru.

The first postwar five-year period in the history of museum life of Pushkin Palace and
Park complex is noted by systematic restoration of exposition and exhibition activity under the auspices of the Central storage of the Leningrad suburban palaces-museums. In 1945, after placement of the cultural values which came back from evacuation in rooms of the Aleksandrovsky palace, research associates of the Central storage started preparation to the first temporary exhibitions of works fine and decorative arts. Restoration in the shortest period of time of the pre-war exposition, which was existed in the halls of Pushkin’s museums, was not possible. For this reason temporary exhibitions in the first post-war years were the unique form of realization of social function of the museum. First of all the relevance of article is caused by lack of practice of the edition by the museum of the illustrated guides and catalogs in the
forties of the 20th century because of limited financial resources and more priority activities. Besides, in the modern literature devoted to this period of museum life, temporary exhibitionsare not considered as independent activities of the Central storage. For this reason, being based more on archival materials, the author of article concentrated on detailed consideration of temporary art exhibitions, which became a push for further development of post-war exhibition practice in suburban palaces museums.
Key words: exhibition activity, suburbs of Leningrad, post-war exhibitions, museumreserve.

Monument

 Dhingra M. AN INSIGHT TO REMNANT HUES OF SOUTH EAST ASIA,
CASE EXAMPLE OF INDIA 
— 130 (Eng.)

Dhingra, Mohit — Conservation Architect, State Coordinator, National Institute of Urban
Affairs, India, New Delhi, mdhingra@niua.org.
A unique traditional ceramic technique, which transformed the architecture of Iran and
Central Asia, displayed its influence in Pre Mughal (1206–1526) and Mughal era (1526–1857) thus forming the integral part of architectural vocabulary of Indian subcontinent. It represents a significant period when craftsmen largely came from Central Asia. The existing remains of glazed tile works on structures along the trade routes linking India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and other countries strengthens the historic cultural linkages with the Central Asian countries.There is deficient documentation and research regarding culture and performance of ceramic glazed tiles in reference to the Indian context. Thus, this paper attempts to fill in the existing gaps and would present a comprehensive picture through the chronological journey of the art from with special emphasis on its present condition by means of analysing issues
related to the art form. It would also formulate a statement of significance to create an avenue of awareness towards this lost craft.

Key words: kashi, binai, under glaze, bisque, premughal, Mughal, Timurid.

Gafarova G. Shekihanovs House — Unknown Monument of Azerbaijani Folk Architecture — 141 (Rus.)

Gafarova, Gunay Nizami-qizi — Doctor of Art History, Associate Professor, the Azerbaijan University of Tourism and Management, Azerbaijan, Baku, gunay_gafarova@mail.ru.

The article is dedicated to the Shekihanovs’ House — little-known monument of architecture created by the people’s architects of Azerbaijan. Being in the shadow of the more famous monument of the Palace of the Sheki Khans, it is the object of large-scale research and numerous visits over the past few years. Shekihanovs’ house is located in the center of the city Sheki, a bit to the North from the Central bazaar and below the Khan’s palace. The Shekihanovs’ house or the Sheki khans’ house was built in 1765–1766 by the ruler Mohammed Huseyn Khan. It is located relatively far from the palace of Sheki Khans and much smaller than it in size. The Shekihanovs’ house repeats the khan’s palace by the great similarity in architecture and planning, as well as decorative design, but it is much simpler and smaller in scale. However, it is more connected with the traditions of the residential folk architecture of Sheki. According to all the stylistic features, the construction of the Shekihanovs’ house also belongs to the end of the XVIII century. Like the khan’s palace, this house was subjected to significant alterations and changes. For example, the facade wall of the second floor which had a continuous
stained-glass window underwent a big alteration. There is information that the house was restored in the XIX century by the master educated in Tabriz and later minor restoration and conservation works were carried out in 1967–1968 and 1985–1986. This historical monument is located in the mahalla (quarter) called «Otaqeşiyiməhəlləsi» and on the street «Gadirbayov», registered under the inventory number 313. Since 1968 the Shekihanovs’ house has been included in the reserve «Yuxarıbaş Qoruq Ərazisi». The descendants of Huseyn-khan, who built this house, lived there until 1967, when this house was purchased by the state for with the purpose of creating a museum in it. Since the acquisition of it from former owners of the house, this monument, which has a huge historical and artistic value, was included in the list of «accident-prone objects of history» of the Ministry of Culture. In 1991 the Shekihanovs’ House was sold with the permission of the Sheki Executive Committee to the private owner Ashraf Jafarov, the descendant of the last Sheki Khan. After long litigations, the illegality
of the actions of local authorities was proved and the architectural monument was again returned to the state. The monument is classified as a monument of architecture of national importance under the decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated August 2, 2001 (order number 132).
Key words: Azerbaijan, Sheki, Shekihanovs’ house, folk architecture, architectural monument, architecture of the XVIII century.

 Lobzova R.V., Yarosh V.N. Research of Structural and Finishing Materials
of the Moskvoretsk Bridge for Development of the Project of Its Restoration
— 153 (Rus.)

Lobzova, Raisa Victorovna — Candidate of Science in Geology-Mineralogy, The Leading Research Fellow, the State Research Institute for Restoration, Russia, Moscow, lobzovarv@mail.ru;
Yarosh, Valeria Nikolaevna — Candidate of Science in Chemistry, Independent Researcher, Russia, Moscow, yaroshvn@mail.ru.

In anticipation of the opening of the Zaryadye Park, the process of developing the restoration project of the Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge, work was carried out to survey the building and finishing materials of the bridge. In the presented work the history of Moskvoretsky bridge is considered, the modern condition of its stone facing, seam solutions and replenishments is estimated. Petrography and electron microscopy have been used to study different types of granite, artificial inserts and sutures, and modern neoplasms. Moskvoretsky bridge was built on the site of the oldest crossing over the Moscow river. This is the only one bridge which is the closest to the Kremlin over the Moscow river, which at all times remained in its historic location. The design of the bridge had been varied. In the beginning filler, then pile wood, later wood on the stone piers and finally, reinforced concrete three-span. On the most part of the bridge’s surface historic blocks of red granite are survived, less often were used light gray
granite blocks. The surface of granite blocks is polished. In the lower part of the South-Eastern base are identified blocks of labradorite. Numerous mechanical damage and loss of stone on the granite facing blocks are associated with the repair and restoration work, exploitation and improper protection of the bridge.
Key words: granite, solutions, cement, painting, iron oxides, mineralogy, petrography,
electron microscopy

Heritage

 Katsaridou I. «MARE NOSTRUM» REVISITED:
PHOTOMED’S DISCOURSES ON MEDITERRANEAN PHOTOGRAPHY 
— 163 (Eng.)

Katsaridou, Iro — PhD in Art History, Curator, Museum of Byzantine Culture, Greece,
Thessaloniki, akatsaridou@culture.gr.

Born in Sanary-sur-mer, on the Var coast of France in 2011, the Photomed festival is an
annual event devoted to Mediterranean photography. Result of a collaboration between various institutions (municipality of Sanary, department of Var, province of Provence) and the Cultural Council of the Union for the Mediterranean, the festival was meant to present each year photographers and visual artists using a variety of modes of photographic expression, from documentary testimonials to pure artistic creation, with sole aim «to showcase and highlight Mediterranean beauty». Following the success of the Sanary event, a Lebanese edition of the festival, the Photomed Liban, has been created in 2014 in Beirut. As its mission statement mentions, it is an event that «beyond the political, social, and religious upheavals that occur», seeks to promote the Mediterranean as «a region full of life and movement». First, the paper will seek to shed light on the reinvention of the «myth of the Mediterranean», exemplified by stereotypical cultural repertories such as «Mare Nostrum», the «oldest cradle of civilizations» or the «homeland of the three monotheist religions». On a second level, an association will
be attempted with the main aspects of Mediterraneanism, a general discourse that, according to anthropologist Michael Herzfeld among else, shares similarities with Edward Said’s Orientalist romanticism, reflecting the power relations between authoritative Western (neo) colonial powers and the Mediterranean people. The analysis aspires to address its political implications, among which the creation of the «Union for the Mediterranean» organization along with its subsequent failure to develop an active role or the most recent refugee crisis.

Key words: photographic festivals, Mediterranean photography, Mediterraneanism, Union for the Mediterranean, neocolonial discourse, art and refugee crisis

Vakhovskaya Z.S., Klimanova E.S. A Case Study of Research and Restoration of Unusual Paper Palimpsest — 177 (Rus.)

Vakhovskaya, Zinaida Stanislavovna — Candidate of Science in Chemistry, Leading Research Fellow, The Russian State Library, Russia, Moscow, VakhovskayaZS@rsl.ru;
Klimanova, Elena Sergeevna — Chief Archivist, The Russian State Library, Russia, Moscow, trikly@rambler.ru.

Palimpsest is a typical phenomenon of parchment manuscripts. This article considers an untypical paper kind of palimpsest discovered during the restoration of the «Life of Peter and Fevronia of Murom» from the Egorov’s collection (F. 98. № 1652) of Manuscripts Department of Russian State Library (Moscow, Russia). The safety of the manuscript was bad: the paper crumbled in the text and on the miniatures, had an unnatural brown color. In the middle of the XVI century, when the first text of the manuscript had been written, the parchment was out of use, the paper was expensive, but not scarce. The rich decoration of the manuscript (24 miniatures on 12 sheets) does not suggest that the text was deleted for paper reused due to lack of funds. The conducted researches helped us to choose a technique of restoration this unusual document and to find out the reasons of its bad safety. The deleted text could not be
read completely, but according to the fragments, it was concluded that it is manuscript of the legal and hagiographical literature of ancient Russia. The previous text was deleted, the new neutral text «Life of Peter and Fevronia of Murom» was written. The reason is the modification and unification of the legislation of that time in Russia.
Key words: palimpsest, restoration, FTIR-spectroscopy.

Ulyasheva S.A. The Main Approaches to Exhibiting of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Museum: A Case of Popular Music — 185 (Rus.)

Ulyasheva, Sofia Andreevna — student of Master’s programme in Museum Studies, Department of museum work and preservation of monuments, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, kaqqadu@gmail.com.
The article considers the methods to exhibit popular music in museum space. The main
focus of the research is aimed at one of crucial question. Organizing exhibitions in popular music museum curators and museum specialists are faced with this question: is it appropriateto display sound, song in museum space? Some scholars write on irrepressible conflict between museum and music: it is impossible to create the experience of aural encounter in the museum space. However popular music museum can’t ignore music itself. As a rule, museum specialists choose one of the three methods to include music in the museum space: headphones, directional speakers or Sound booths. For presentation music in the museum it is necessary to include in the exhibit sound, but visual stuff is also important. Popular music as an object of museum exhibition is very attractive for a mass visitor. Therefore, the question of methods of
exhibiting popular music in the museum space is very relevant.
Key words: museum of popular music, exposition, museum, intangible cultural heritage.

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