Current issue

MUSEUM. MONUMENT. HERITAGE 2 (6) / 2019

A Problem in Focus: Towards 15th years of the Department of Museum Work
and Preservation of Monuments of Saint-Petersburg State University

15th years of the Department of Museum Work and Preservation of Monuments — 5 (Rus.)

Malygina O.I. The Leningrad society of private collectors in 1972–1979:
Structure, composition and brief description of activities 
 7 (Rus.)

Malygina, Olga Igorevna — Bachelor in Museology, Alumni of the Department of Museum Work and Preservation of Monuments, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, malyghina.student@mail.ru.

This article is the result of research work on unpublished sources on the history of the
creation and functioning of the Leningrad Society of Private Collectors in 1972–1979. The author analyzes archival material stored in the funds of the Central State Archive of Literature and Art of St. Petersburg. The article gives a brief description of collecting activities in the Soviet period, identifies the goals and objectives of the creation of the Society, analyzes its structure in detail, and touches on the main directions of its activities. The materials of the article show how the Society structure evolved and changed in the presented period. As a result of the research, the author concludes that the unification of collectors in a semi-closed organization has become a necessary measure of the survival of private collecting in the harsh conditions dictated by Soviet reality.
Key words: private collecting, Leningrad society of private collectors, Soviet collecting.

 Babanova A.M. Virtual object as a monument of modern culture in museum: Museumification and exhibiting of electronic games (a case of the Museum of Finnish Games in Tampere)  18 (Rus.)

Babanova, Anastasia Mikhailovna — MA in Museology, assistant, the State Hermitage
Museum, Alumni of the Department of Museum Work and Preservation of Monuments, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, babanova.anastasi@yandex.ru.

The features of the modern world associated with activation, accelerated pace of life, high pace of technological development could not help but affect museums, which now try to keep up with the times and master new areas of activity. The widespread use of the Internet, multimedia and digital technologies, creation of virtual and augmented reality programs and expansion of their scope — all this is already part of our reality, and virtual objects are becoming part of the digital heritage. The article considers virtual objects as independent monuments of modern culture, which are worthy of preservation for future generations. The author analyzes the features of virtual objects, their value characteristics, relationships with the properties of museum objects and the possibility for virtual objects to take their place in museum collections. The importance of electronic games and their rich history is emphasized. Methods of saving and exhibiting such games using modern and authentic techniques with adaptation of programs and without changing them are presented. A review is made of the existing expositions
of electronic games at the Finnish Games Museum in Tampere, Finland, which serve as
good examples of the practical implementation of the methods for exhibiting virtual environment artifacts.
Key words: virtual object, modern culture, museum, the Finnish Games Museum, museumification, exhibition.

Zaliaeva A.R. Kondratyevskiy housing estate: The social-economical model of adaptation and the conception of the museumification of monument of residential architecture of the Modern movement — 25 (Rus.)

Zaliaeva, Alina Rafaelevna — Bachelor of Museology, student of the master program “Art Criticism”, Saint Petersburg State University, Alumni of the Department of Museum Work and Preservation of Monuments, Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, alina19972402@mail.ru.

The article touches upon the issues related to the preservation and the actualization of soviet heritage and residential architecture of the Modern Movement in Russia. This paper will attempt to present briefly a conception of adaptation and actualization of Kondratyevskiy Housing Estate with the theoretical and practical rationales for the proposed solutions that could be helpful for draft of projects for other objects of cultural heritage. Kondratyevskiy Housing Estate is an example of the residential architecture of soviet avant-garde of the 1920–1930th which state of conservation is poor and the existing project of adaptation does not conform with the purposes of preservation of objects of cultural heritage. This article proposes socialeconomical model of the adaptation of object of cultural heritage “Kondrat’evskij zhilmassiv” having regard to provisions of state youth policy and international principles of the conservation
of architectural heritage of 20th century. The mentioned social-economical model entails
the adaptation of Kondratyevskiy Housing Estate for state rented houses for young specialists — postgraduate students of universities in Saint Petersburg. In the framework of adaptation of Kondratyevskiy Housing Estate for a youth cluster is it actual to restore the ruined building of kindergarten and adapt it for cultural center and ecomuseum of Kalininskiy rayon and Kondratyevskiy Housing Estate, including the usage of mobile applications for popularization of heritage.
Key words: Kondratyevskiy Housing Estate, actualization of soviet heritage, adaptation
of object of cultural heritage, museumification, ecomuseum.

Svetlova E.A. Engineers’ castle in the guidebooks of Leningrad: Metamorphoses of perception — 35 (Rus.)

Svetlova, Ekaterina Andreevna — student of the bachelor program “Attribution and expertise of cultural objects”, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, katyasvetlova@mail.ru

The perception of a particular architectural monument repeatedly changed in the Russian society throughout the 20th century. This was facilitated by the ongoing changes in sociopolitical life — revolutionary events led to an increase in anti-monarchical sentiments, many monuments of the imperial time were deserted; after the Great Patriotic War, the problem of determining priority arose in order to restore the destroyed buildings; The Perestroika period sparked a surge of interest in the forgotten architectural heritage. One of the ways, which could help people to find out the historical heritage of Leningrad, always was a guide book. In this mass publication were spelled clearly information, which was relevant for its time. As a result, guidebooks from different years contained completely different information about the same building, park, or monument. Such a masterpiece of architecture as the Engineers’ or Mikhailovsky castle was no exception. During the existence of the Soviet Union, guide book
highlighted in the foreground sometimes completely different episodes from the history of this building. The author analyzed the information of the guidebooks about the castle, correlating it with the wide historical context of the Soviet era.
Key words: Engineers’ (Mikhailovsky) Castle, guide book, monument of architecture of
Leningrad, the image of perception.

Museum 

 Utkina N.A. “Museum demand” and creation of museums of Nizhny Novgorod in 1860–1917 — 45 (Rus.)

Utkina, Nadezhda Alekseevna — Candidate of Science in History, the Head of the Department of Exhibitions, the Museum of the Nizhniy Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky, Russian Federation, Nizhniy Novgorod, cucula86@mail.ru.

The article is devoted to the consideration of the history of the creation of the first Nizhny Novgorod museums based on theory of museality of Z. Stransky in connection with the development of the urban sociocultural environment. At the same time, the category «museum demand» acts as the basis for the process of identifying, selecting and preserving objects of the surrounding reality as cultural values. In Nizhny Novgorod, museum demand started talking about herself in the 1860s after the appearance of the first local historical and local history texts. However, then the idea of a «museum» did not take hold, and the collected objects did not find themselves a worthy premises in the city space. In the 1880s, the change of historical
conditions, the development of local scientific and social forces in the field of local history, natural sciences, pedagogy, technology, arts was also reflected in the museum sphere, contributing to the creation of a number of museum institutions. This process relied on a personal initiative to identify and collect diverse subject collections and an awareness of the museum’s functionality as a special cultural form. For the complex designation of museums of different typology created during the specified period, it is proposed to use the concept of «Museyon ‘Nizhny Novgorod».
Key words: museum, museality theory, museum demand, Nizhny Novgorod, Z. Stransky, Museyon of Nizhny Novgorod.

Zakharov S.V. The results of museum activities in the Smolensk province by 1917 — 55 (Rus.)

Zakharov, Sergey Viktorovich — the Laboratory Technician, the Smolensk State Museum-Reserve, Russian Federation, Smolensk, morkiz.kom@mail.ru.

The article considers the issue of the results of museums in the Smolensk province by
1917. The year 1917 was a turning point for museum work throughout the country, as the legislative basis of museum activity and the very structure of museum work changed. The author considers mainly the largest museums of the province — the Historical and Archaeological Museum, the Historical and Ethnographic Museum of M.K. Tenisheva and the Museum of the Society for the Study of the Smolensk province, as well as some others. The results of the museums of Smolensk region are based on information about the collections of museums, the exhibitions held, the number of visitors and the work schedule, the research work of museums and some other factors. As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that the First World War was the turning point for the activities of the museums of Smolensk province. Due to the border situation of Smolensk, most museums were temporarily closed and continued to work
only after the October Revolution. The results of the museums of the Smolensk region by 1917 are significant. The collections collected in the largest museums include several thousand exhibits, many of which are rare. Museums of the Smolensk region by 1917 actively conducted educational work, especially with the younger generation. In addition, museums continued to be centers of research activity. All this allows us to characterize the level of development of museum business in the province by 1917 as high.
Key words: Smolensk, Smolensk province, museum work, Smolensk state Museum-reserve, local history.

  Bespalaya M.A. A personality as key factor of socio-cultural progress: To 130 years of D.S. Georgievsky— 65 (Rus.)

Bespalaya, Maria Arkadievna — Doctor of Science in History, Professor, Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts, Republic of Belarus, Minsk, kafistbel@buk.by.

The author shows the role of the person in the development of museum theory and practice on a national and regional level. The activity of D.S. Georgievsky — the Chief Curator of the Polesie Museum, is taken as an example. The article reveals the exceptional importance of such personal qualities as responsible attitude to work, creativity and ideology, respect for the cultural identity of Western Polesie, understanding the necessity of the preservation and popularization of the cultural heritage of this region. These qualities help D.S. Georgievsky to represent the museum as the scientific and cultural-educational center of Western Polesie.
Key words: Western Polesie, personality, museum, collection, culture, region.

Monument

Veksler A.F. The cassolette as a communicative phenomenon: The history of one museum exhibit — 72 (Rus.)

Veksler, Asia Filippovna — Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Russian Federation, Moscow, aveksler@hse.ru

The article is devoted to the issues of attribution and interpretation of one artifact from
the exhibition of A.I. Herzen museum — a porcelain cassolette (incense burner) created at the Imperial Porcelain Factory in the last third of the 19th century. With a minimum amount of documentary information, the author explores the provenance of the artifact and seeks to decipher its symbolic connotation. The author examines the cultural and historical environment of the museum subject from its intended and real owners. The purpose of the study is to try to understand the language of the artifact and its ability to act as a source of information about historical figures and events, and thus explain its creation, far beyond the scope of its functional purpose. The author of the subject is the chief model of the Imperial Porcelain Factory August Spiess, devoted his work to the creation of tableware and interior decoration items. But this artifact, according to the author of the article, goes beyond the framework of traditional genres of porcelain production and is associated with political and social processes characteristic of Russia in the second half of the 19th century. The author focuses on the communicative purpose of the object, which seems much wider than its functional denotation.
This museum object became the object of research for the first time, detailed information about it is first introduced into scientific circulation. This is new material in Russian art history and communication science.
Key words: сassolette, porcelain, Imperial Porcelain Factory, museum object, satire, allegory.

  Emelyanova N.A. Thing and memory in structure of city’s image— 93 (Rus.)

Emelyanova, Nadezhda Andreevna — Student of Master program at the Department of
Museology and Cultural Heritage, Saint Petersburg State Institute of Culture, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, nadin0610@yandex.ru.

The article presents results of the multidisciplinary research the aim of which was to investigate the city’s image in perception of St. Petersburg dwellers and the objective world’s role in process of structure formation of such image. The theoretical framework of the research is based on several works by W. Benjamin, cultural-anthropological concept of inscribed spaces and on the concept of realms of memory by P. Nora, which provided a possibility to justify the idea that a thing (as a reason for initiating the representation of the image and as the embodiment of the image born by the associations) is cast in the role of a realm of memory and appears to be one of the most important meaning-making elements of the subjective city’s image along with a place and a spatial tactics. Analysis of narrative interviews’ transcripts and of mental maps from the author’s personal archive highlighted ways of constructing city’s image and made it possible to create the typology of realms of memory in connection with individual, family and collective memory of city dwellers. Besides, the formation mechanism of “the sense that memory has been torn” (in terms of P. Nora concept) which result in appearing of a sense of loss of city space was described. Further analysis helped to reveal the functional meaning of a thing for the text structure of the interviews and the mental maps composition. Moreover, in narratives there were revealed several scenarios of objective world’s representations semantically
significant for the subjective city’s image and revealing interdependence of places, spatial tactics and things. Summing up, the author reaches the conclusion that the relationship between the city’s image and a thing is much more complicated comparing with its relation to other meaning-making elements since it is a thing that brings a notion of time to the city’s image. In this connection the stronger an informants’ sense of loss the richer objective world they narrate thus showing a desire to make the image of the lost “visible” in the Benjamin sense.
Key words: city’s image, city space, thing, narrative, mental map, inscribed spaces,
realms of memory, W. Benjamin, P. Nora

Shimanova M.A., Lobzova R.V., Smolyaninova V.N. History, systematics and comprehensive study of the collection of decorative ceramics of the Church museum of the Moscow diocese of the ROC, Novodevichy monastery — 101 (Rus.)

Shimanova, Maria Aleksandrovna — Chief Curator, the Church Museum of the Moscow
diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Federation, Moscow, m.shimanova@yandex.ru;
Lobzova, Raisa Viktorovna — Candidate of Science in Geology and Mineralogy, Senior Researcher, the State Research Institute of Restoration, Russian Federation, Moscow, lobzovarv@mail.ru;
Smolyaninova, Vera Nikolaevna — Candidate of Science in Geology and Mineralogy, Senior Researcher, the Ore-Petrographic Museum of the Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits,Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Moscow, smolvernik@yandex.ru.

The article presents the history of the creation of the collection of decorative ceramics of
the Church Museum of the Moscow diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church, associated with the name of the architect-restorer N.S. Romanov, who carried out repair and restoration work on the objects of the ensemble of the Novodevichy monastery in Moscow since the 1980th. Are given various research methods that were applied to the selected samples of the collection of decorative ceramics. Are presented the results of technological research, which were applied to samples of ceramic shards and glazes taken from the ceramic tombstone of the unknown, buried in the territory of the Novodevichy monastery. Are presented the methods of systematization of the Museum collection of ceramics, based on the scientific approach of studying construction ceramics and, in particular, tiles, proposed in the early 20th century, Aleksey
Vasil’evich Filippov. A.V. Filippov is the largest specialist in the field of ceramics, technologist, artist, teacher, restorer, and collector, who collected a large collection of Russian tiles.
Key words: decorative ceramics, tiles, technological research, history of museum collection.

Heritage

Bonami Z.A. The new memorial culture and museum — 114 (Rus.)

Bonami, Zinaida Amatusovna — Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, museologist, Russia, Moscow, bonamizinaida@gmail.com.

The paper has the aim to review a row of the recent research trends, discourses and terms in the field of history studies, that refer directly to the sphere of museum theory and practice. It concerns the origin and the evolution of the notion the new memorial culture, introduced as a method of comprehending the past exceedingly as a personal vision and introspection, that started to be spread in the post-soviet space in early 1990s. The new memorial culture is characterized with the intense history-orientated public activities and initiatives, as well as the extension of the museum institution definition; the birth of the new type museums (museum of memory), grounded in the strong emotional effect over the audience. Creating a rather favourable context of public prestige for the traditional museum, the new memorial culture has the immense transformative impact over it , thus confront with Hamlet’s choice: whether ‘tis
nobler to remain in the position of a public favorite or to oppose the trend, putting on agenda and thus promoting in contemporary mentality the image of culture as a collective past?
Key words: academic history, public history, collective (universal) memory, actualization, oblite ration, post-traumatic experience, memorial culture (the culture of memories), museums of memories, soviet retromania, reflective nostalgia.

  Firsova A.V., Livshits E.V. The forms of working with literary heritage in the “Pasternak’s House” museum — 123 (Rus.)

Firsova, Anastasia Vladimirovna — Candidate of Sciences in Geography, Associate Professor, Perm State National Research University, Russian Federation, Perm, firssowa@mail.ru;

Livshits, Ekaterina Valerevna — Director, Politruk LLC, Russian Federation, Perm, izdanii@mail.ru.

The literary heritage is a symbolic resource that requires special approaches to visualization. The objects of exposition in the literary museum are not so much objects as artistic images of works, the creative method of author are phenomena that can be easy talked about, but difficult to show. Presentation of literary heritage requires project methods and a creative approach. “Pasternak’s House” Museum in the village Vsevolodo-Vilva of the Perm Territory is a kind of experimental platform for the introduction of innovative forms of work with the literary heritage. As an example, the article considers two projects: The Pasternak Readings and “The Poet’s Garden.
Interaction”. During the annual Pasternak Readings conference, high school students participate in competitive tasks based on the principles of geo-poetics — the relationship of word, place and person. The results of creative works are literary researches, clips of audiovisual poetry, illustrations, which are used in the publishing activities of the museum. Another relevant task for the museum is the development of the museum space and its adaptation for people with disabilities. The literary heritage of Boris Pasternak, the rhythm and musicality of his poems prompted the idea of the project “The Poet’s Garden. Interaction — creating an inclusive landscape exhibition for the visually impaired in the Pasternak’s House Museum”. In June 2020, a complex of seven musical art objects will appear in the museum’s garden. Each art object can be “read” with your fingers and has its own sound that is consonant with the poet’s poetry. The experiment with the literary heritage and space that takes place in the small village Vsevolodo-Vilva forms here a unique literary landscape, which on the one hand discovers various aspects of the work of Boris Pasternak, on the other hand, involves visitors of the museum in an active interaction with his heritage.
Key words: literary heritage, literary museum, literary landscape, project activity, educational tourism, inclusive tourism, B.L. Pasternak, Perm Territory.

Sparlo S.L. A regional museum and local community: The practice of cooperation — 132 (Rus.)

Sparlo, Svetlana Leontyevna — Ph.D. Student, Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts, Republic of Belarus, Minsk, sclare@tut.by.

The article examines the significance of the regional museum in the cultural life of the
local community and the possibilities of interaction between regional museums and the local community. It describes new integrated forms of work of the regional museum with the local community in the field of preservation and broadcasting of historical and cultural heritage. The museum is a very important link in the system of cultural institutions in the region, which cooperate with the local community. This factor is facilitated by the multi-disciplinary nature of museum collections, on the basis of which various forms of cultural and educational work can be carried out and also it gives the possibility to interact creatively in this process with other cultural institutions. The author describes the essence and evolution of the concept of “local community”, reveals the professional cooperation of museums with other cultural institutions in the field of preservation and promotion of historical and cultural heritage, as well as cooperation with interested groups of the local community in implementing joint projects that are important for the entire region. At the present stage of development, the regional museum is a center for studying, preserving and broadcasting monuments of both material and non-material culture. In the process of practical work, regional museums set new priorities aimed at developing a comprehensive dialogue with the local community.
Key words: museum, local community, heritage, participation culture.

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