Current issue

MUSEUM. MONUMENT. HERITAGE 1 (11) / 2022

A Problem in Focus: Porcelain in Museum

Sapanzha O.S., Balandina N.A. “Yablochko” Dance in Soviet Interior Porcelain Plastic: To the 95th anniversary of the Ballet “The Red Poppy”: Upon the Materials of the Museum “XXth Years After the War. Museum of Everyday Culture of Leningrad 1945–1965 — 5 (Rus.)

Sapanzha, Olga Sergeevna — Doctor of Cultural Studies, Professor, the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, sapanzha@mail.ru;
Balandina, Natalya Alexandrovna — Chief Curator, Museum “XXth years after the War.
Museum of Everyday Culture of Leningrad 1945–1965”, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, 1945–1965@mail.ru

Ballet “Red Poppy”, created by R.M. Gliere for the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution as a new phenomenon in the art of musical theater is at the center of this paper. Ballet experts study its choreographic, scenographic and thematical innovations. On the other hand, the “Red Poppy” is of interest to researchers of everyday culture. The characters of the ballet (the dancer Tao Hoa) became part of the space of the house in the works of porcelain plastic, the perfume “Red Poppy” became the first experience in creating a perfume composition on the theme of ballet. The image of a red flower has become the basis of household items and fashion — from accessories to needlework. The dance of the sailors of the Soviet ship became one of the most striking episodes of the ballet and was included in the space of everyday life. Based on the ditty song and the traditions of sailor dance, this dance has become an indispensable
component of everyday and festive culture. Moreover, it was presented in works of small plastics. So the dance returned to the space of art. On the example of the collection of the Museum “XXth years after the War. Museum of Everyday Culture of Leningrad 1945–1965” compositional and stylistic features of figurines are considered in the article. The figurines were made at the Dmitrovsky Porcelain Factory and the Polonsky Artistic Ceramics Factory. The “Yablochko dance”, along with other images of sailors, became an important component of the art of Soviet post-war interior porcelain.
Key words: ballet, Soviet musical theatre, “Red Poppy”, R.M. Glière, the “Yablochko
dance”, Soviet interior porcelain, Dmitrovsky Porcelain Factory, Polonsky Art Ceramics Factory, museum collections of porcelain.

Voropaeva T.A. Novgorod Porcelain in the Collections of Museums of Veliky Novgorod  17 (Rus.)

Voropaeva, Tatyana Alexandrovna — Senior Researcher, Curator, Novgorod State United Museum-Reserve, Russian Federation, Veliky Novgorod, voropaevamuseum@gmail.com

The rich history of Novgorod porcelain, which arose at the end of the 19th century and ended in the early 2000s, is preserved and popularized by the museums of Veliky Novgorod, namely the Novgorod Museum-Reserve and the Museum of the Artistic Culture of the Novgorod Land. The article characterizes the collections of Novgorod museums in accordance with the history of Novgorod porcelain. The collection of the Novgorod Museum-Reserve contains objects of all periods and all factories of the Novgorod porcelain industry. It should be noted that the museum has works of other factories of our country and foreign enterprises too. The museum collection provides an opportunity to get acquainted with rare and unique porcelain objects of the late 19th and early 21st centuries, to trace the development trend of local industry in the context of the development of Russian porcelain production. “The Porcelain Museum Workshop” of the Museum of Artistic Culture of the Novgorod Land is a permanent exposition
of Novgorod porcelain covering all periods of development of the region’s porcelain industry. The uniqueness of the exposition lies in the fact that elements of a technological line for the manufacture of porcelain, elements of a musealized porcelain production, a collection of Novgorod porcelain, as well as archival materials are presented here in a single space.                                                                                 Key words: Novgorod porcelain, Novgorod Museum-Reserve, Museum of Artistic Culture of the Novgorod Land, Museum Workshop of Porcelain, I.E. Kuznetsov.

Afanasieva A.N., Vinokurov S.Ye. European Porcelain in the Collection of the Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts: New Arrivals in the Context of the Formation of the Collection  28 (Rus.)

Afanasieva, Anna Nikolaevna — Senior Research Fellow, Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine
Arts, Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg, anik517@mail.ru;
Vinokurov, Sergey Yevgenyevich — Candidate of Art History, Head of the Decorative
Arts Department, Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts, Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg, serg.vinokuroff@gmail.com.

The collection of the Ekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts, numbering more than eighteen
thousand items today, includes an extensive collection of porcelain and art glass from Russia, Europe, and the Far East. The collection of European porcelain, formed over more than 80 years of the museum’s history thanks to large-scale donations from museum institutions and individuals, allows us to present the main productions of Germany, Austria, France, Great Britain, and Bohemia in the 18th — the first third of the 20th century. The article provides information about an exceptional case for regional museums of replenishing the collection of European porcelain by purchasing, the place of this event in the context of the history of the formation of the collection of European porcelain, as well as introducing new works into scientific circulation and revealing the principle of their selection for acquisition.
Key words: European porcelain, collection, Yekaterinburg Museum of Fine Arts.

Ivanova E.V. Bas-relief Images of the Beginning of the 20th Century of Russian Emperors and Empresses from the Collection of the Tsarskoe Selo State Museum: On the Theme of Attribution — 37 (Rus.)

Ivanova, Ekaterina Vyacheslavovna — Candidate of Art History, Specialist in the Registration of Museum Objects, the Tsarskoe Selo State Museum and Heritage Site, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, vh.uchet@tzar.ru

The number of porcelain and glass items from the collection of the Tsarskoe Selo State
Museum and Heritage Site is almost 5,000. Less than half of the items according to preliminary attributive data reflect the history of the porcelain and glass industries of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The core of art porcelain collection of the beginning of the 20th century is primarily Art Nouveau objects are intended to decorate the interiors of the Alexander Palace. Their study was given paramount importance under the conditions of restoration and reconstruction of the decoration of the palace. At the same time some items of this period were ignored for many years in terms of scientific attribution. Such items were bas-relief images of emperors and empresses, made at the beginning of the 20th century. Currently only some technical characteristics and creation time are known about these items according to inscriptions and storage documentation. There are three directions of the disclosure of the information potential
of bas-relief images represented in the article: the establishment of historical and cultural links between bas-reliefs and the life of the museum in the 20th century; disclosure of technical and technological aspects of creating objects (material, technology); identification of artistic primary sources of bas-relief portraits.

Key words: bas-reliefs, Baron N.A. Tipolt, the Tsarskoe Selo State Museum and Heritage Site, attribution.

Museum 

Barsht K.A. Museum of a Literary Work as a Problem:
On the Example of the “Brothers Karamazov” Museum at Staraya Russa 
— 46 (Rus.)

Barsht, Konstantin Abrekovitch — Doctor of Science in Philology, Professor, the Leading Research Fellow, Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkin House) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, konstantin_barsht@pushdom.ru

The article discusses a set of difficulties associated with the creation of the museum of
literary works, using the example of the recently organized in Staraya Russa Museum of the Novel by F.M. Dostoevsky “The Brothers Karamazov”. The advantages and disadvantages of the current museum structure are analyzed, a number of proposals are put forward to improve the scientific, informational, methodological and exposition content of the museum. The concept is proposed, according to which, the main task of this kind of museum should be the formation of an exposition that reflects the creative process of F.M. Dostoevsky in a historical perspective, that led him to the creation of this work. As a particularly valuable material for the construction of such an exhibition, drawings in the writer’s manuscripts filled in during the work on the novel are offered, in particular, images of the “elders”, his eight-year-old son Fyodor, as well as a young man in a monk’s robe with two crosses as the first record of the plot idea realized in the fate of Alyosha Karamazov.

Key words: F.M. Dostoevsky, Staraya Russa, the Brothers Karamazov Museum, exhibition, allusions, drawings in manuscripts.

Hookk D.Yu. Social Attitudes of the Museum Visitor and Employee:
Towards the Formulation of the Task 
— 65 (Rus.)

Hookk, Daria Yurievna — Candidate of Science in Philology, Senior Research Fellow, the State Hermitage Museum, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, hookk@hermitage.ru

The museum as a fashion trend of the 18th century evolved from a private collection
into a public institution. Since the time of the Peter the Great Kunstkammer, the motivation for visiting collections of rarities has also undergone changes. The social significance of the institute of memory is not disputed by anyone, the attitude is changing. Museum pedagogy involves the use of methods of psychology, namely, social psychology. Whatever current in psychology (behaviorist, cognitive, motivational, structural or genetic) we follow, a social attitude describes a person’s tendency to commit a certain social behavior. Depending on the components: the ability to perceive, realize, evaluate, an individual will act in relation to a social object (in particular, a museum) in a certain way. In order to fix the change in social attitudes towards visiting the museum, in particular, related to the pandemic, it was necessary to turn to the history of studying this issue in Russian museums. There have been no special museum studies on this issue, but indirectly it was possible to identify a change in social attitudes over the course of a century. To attract museum visitors, both real and virtual, it is essential to take into account different social attitudes, and as a result, information service for a certain target audience requires different methodological techniques.
Key words: museum, museum research, social psychology, social attitude, covid-19 pandemic.

Juraev Sh.G. From the History of Bukhara Museum: Towards its Centenary 76 (Rus.)

Juraev, Sherali Gulyamovich — Head of the Department of Art and Ethnography, the
Bukhara State Museum-Reserve, Uzbekistan, Bukhara, Sherali_Gulyamovich@mail.ru

This article will highlight interesting facts related to the Bukhara State Museum-Reserve. The information in the article prepared for the 100th anniversary has its own character; many of the facts are published for the first time. The data published in the article are prepared on the basis of archival materials of the museum-reserve and materials of journals, conferences collected as a result of scientific research. The creation of the museum was chosen as the object of several studies, but the article does not contain information about its creation, but is directly related to several interesting facts that occurred in the period from the creation of the museum to the 1980s. The activity of the museum in the 1930s was studied by comparing the
example of archival documents and several articles. The activity of museum workers of the 50s is particularly noteworthy. The article reflects issues such as the filming of the film “The Collapse of the Emirate”, the activities of the art historian Goncharova, international relations of the museum, research of museum objects by famous scientists. The article also discusses the issues of enriching the museum’s funds, organized and conducted exhibitions, scientific expeditions of museum workers. Flows of the museum exhibits, especially the transfer of the book collection to other organizations, are covered on the basis of archival data.
Key words: Bukhara, expedition, fund, O.D. Chekhovich, O.A. Sukhareva, museum.

Monument

  Bukharin M.D. To the History of the Study of Buddhist Art in the USSR in the 1920s — 84 (Rus.)

Bukharin, Mikhail Dmitrievitch — Doctor of Science in History, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Chief Research Fellow, the Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation, Moscow, michabucha@gmail.com

At the end of the XIXth — beginning of the XXth century, a school for the study of Buddhism was formed in Russia — one of the leading in European science. In the 1920s it was headed by the members of the Russian Academy of Sciences S.F. Oldenburg and F.I. Shcherbatskoy. Until the end of 1925, the position of Buddhism in the USSR was relatively favorable, but Buddhist studies of the representatives of academic science did not meet the support of state, since the researchers themselves were considered as an alien element in the class society. Nevertheless, after 1917, S.F. Oldenburg resumed teaching and lectured in a number of educational and research institutions on the history of Indian culture. The St. Petersburg branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences preserved a file with the fragments of lectures under the general title “New trends in the study of Indian material culture and especially art”.
Most of it are fragments of lecture, presumably identified as the “Buddhist Cave Temple”, given in 1923 or 1924 at the Institute of History of Arts. S.F. Oldenburg developed in this text religious foundations of Buddhist aesthetics.
Key words: Buddhism, painting, sculpture, cave, temple, history of arts, S.F. Oldenburg.

Lyubeznikov O.A. Leonid Rakhmanov’s Story “Basile” in the Context of the History of the State Anti-religious Museum in Leningrad: The image of Saint Isaac’s Cathedral in the 1930s — 99 (Rus.)

Lyubeznikov, Oleg Anatolievich — Candidate of Science in History, Senior Lecturer, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, o.lyubeznikov@spbu.ru

The story of the young Leningrad writer L.N. Rakhmanov “Basil”, which was published
in 1933, told about the tragic fate of a serf who participated in the construction of St. Isaac’s cathedral. By the end of the 1930s the story which was published for the first time at the period of the formation of the State Anti-Religious Museum and had many reprints after that, was included in the list of books recommended for reading for museum’s visitors. The subject of this article is establishing a connection between interpretation of the history of the cathedral, proposed by L.N. Rakhmanov, and some changes in the profile of the State Anti-Religious Museum which took place in the 1930s. The author, referred to the documents of 6 St. Petersburg archives, reconstructed the stages of the writer’s work on the text of the book and the
image of St. Isaac’s Cathedral created on its pages, which was in demand by the new administration of the State Anti-Religious Museum in the mid–1930s. During this period, the role of the League of Militant Atheists, as a result of whose persistent initiative the museum had been opened, noticeably decreased, and party and state leaders chose a course towards patriotization of ideology. These factors led to the factual transformation of the museum’s profile. The new image of the cathedral as a monument of labor was close to that formed by L.N. Rakhmanov, and in 1939 the museum’s editions both discursively and verbatim echoed to the story “Basil”.
Key words: St. Isaac’s Cathedral, L.N. Rakhmanov, anti-religious museum, League of
Militant Atheists, Auguste de Montferrand, Leningrad.

  Stepanova D.G. The Architectural and Landscape Complex of the Herzen University in the Works of Applied Art from the Educational and Methodological Collection of the Institute of Art Education of the Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen (Artistic Souvenir — Textiles, Ceramics, Porcelain) — 119 (Rus.)

Stepanova, Daria Gennadievna — Master of Education, PhD Student, The Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Stepanovadg@yandex.ru

In 2022, Herzen University will celebrate its 225th anniversary. The Institute of art education occupies an important part of the university and the art space of Saint-Petersburg. The artistic tradition of the Institute of art education harmoniously combined the heritage of fine and applied arts, the imperial heritage of Saint-Petersburg, the code of Soviet art and the search of Russian avant-garde. Preserving traditions and mastering current artistic trends, the masters develop the line of Leningrad and Saint-Petersburg art and pedagogical education. The images of the RSPU, architectural and landscape motifs in various periods inspired the artists of applied art, teachers and students of the Institute to create art works. A special place in creative searches has always been occupied by a souvenir, as a form of synthesis of an independent
artistic expression, as well as a marker of the cultural and historical code of the university. This article is devoted to a comprehensive review of university motifs in applied art objects of various industries, including porcelain, textiles, ceramics, etc. This research will reveals the characteristic artistic and expressive features inherent in all works, as well as unique features in solving the artistic image.
Key words: applied arts, Herzen University, Imperial Porcelain Factory, porcelain, textiles, ceramics, art souvenir, collections.

Heritage

Korolkova L.V. A.I. Sobolevsky and His Activities in Preparing for the Publication of the Book “The Life of the Great Russian Peasants”
(Materials of Prince V.N. Tenishev Ethnographic Bureau) 
— 127 (Rus.)

Korolkova, Liudmila Valentinovna — Candidate of Science in History, the Leading Research Fellow, the Russian Museum of Ethnography, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, korolkoval@list.ru

The article is devoted to the history of the study and publication of the materials of Prince V.N. Tenishev Ethnographic bureau in the early XXth century. The main attention in the publication is paid to issues related to the preparation of the monograph “The Life of the Great Russian Peasants” (1900–1902), which was not published due to the death of Prince V.N. Tenishev (1903). In the academic and popular literature of the XXth — early XXIth century, the statement was fixed that Prince V.N. Tenishev himself was engaged in the final systematization and preparation of the texts of this publication. However, this statement turned out to be incorrect. In the course of her work at the Saint-Petersburg Branch of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the author of this article managed to find materials that allowed to shed light on the history of the creation of the monograph “The Life of the Great Russian Peasants” and to identify the person to whom V.N. Tenishev entrusted the systematization and writing of this fundamental work. The main sources for this article were the materials of the above mentioned archive and publications on the work of Prince V.N. Tenishev Ethnographic bureau.
Key words: ethnography, history of science, Prince V.N. Tenishev, A.I. Sobolevsky.

Krasnova E.L. Preservation and Broadcasting of Cultural Heritage in the Digital Age: To the Building of a Model — 134 (Rus.)

Krasnova, Evgenia Leonidovna — Candidate of Cultural Studies, Leading Research Fellow, the State Scientific Institution “Center for System Analysis and Strategic Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus”, Republic of Belarus, Minsk, ev.krasnova83@mail.ru

Technological progress and the development of Internet resources have led to the advent of the Digital Age. A variety of materials posted on information platforms began to acquire new qualities that are necessary in the context of the dynamic growth of technologies and means of broadcasting modern digital content. Cultural heritage, being included in the global trend of virtualization, is gradually being transformed into a digital format. The concept of “Digital Heritage” (“Virtual Heritage” or “New Heritage”) is actively included in scientific discourse, acquires many interpretations depending on the point of view of researchers and practitioners in the field of preservation and presentation of cultural heritage. The article discusses the model of transformation of material objects into a digital heritage objects. The process of transforming cultural heritage into a digital format is a sequential change in the levels of material and intangible condition, as well as subsequent digital and material reconstruction. Digital objects become the basis for further use in scientific, research, educational, commercial and other purposes. Emotional perception, spiritual and moral reflection of people who perceive the transmitted knowledge and images, form an institution for the preservation and transmission of historical memory and contribute to the memorialization of national and world heritage sites.
Key words: heritage, digitalization of cultural heritage, digital heritage.

  Biryukova M.V., Chumis A.E. Actualization of Nonconformist Art in Modern Museum Projects — 141 (Rus.)

Biryukova, Marina Valerievna — Doctor of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor, Saint-
Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, m.birjukova@spbu.ru;
Chumis, Alexandra Evgenievna — Student of Master Programme, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, st095764@student.spbu.ru.

The article examines the art of Soviet nonconformism reflected in museum curatorial
projects. The concepts of large-scale museum exhibitions dedicated to the work of artists who were excluded from the official sphere of art or left the country demonstrate the art of nonconformism using modern presentation methods, in the context of original curatorial projects. The domestic museum reception, which can be considered “postponed”, if not belated, is aimed at understanding the works of I. Kabakov, V. Yankilevsky, M. Shemyakin, L. Sokov and other authors who initially received recognition abroad and entered the history of art within the framework of Western historiography. The article analyzes exhibition projects in which the art of nonconformism is demonstrated in the space of tradition, media and everyday context,
the context of cultural myths and symbols relevant here and now. The problem of determining the aesthetic value of works is not so important, although it is emphasized in the museum space. The mythology and narrative of projects are more significant, and the artifacts presented acquire greater expressiveness next to traditional artworks. Exhibition curators effectively use aesthetic and formal contrasts, sometimes the works themselves offer new ways of understanding meanings hypothetically included in the perception of nonconformism “passed by” the general Soviet public — in the projects at the Hermitage, the Russian Museum, the Tretyakov Gallery, where curators can combine or compare common ideas or formal qualities of exhibition artifacts, including those that have already become classics of modernity — avant-garde and
nonconformism, and the latest cultural context.                                                            Key words: contemporary art, avant-garde, nonconformism, postmodernism, museum, exhibition, curatorial project.

Reviews

Balash A.N. [Review of:] Delisse C. The Metabolic Museum.
Moscow: Museum “Garage” Press, 2021. 136 p. ISBN 978–5–6045381–7–3 — 150 (Rus.)

Balash, Aleksandra Nikolaevna — Doctor of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor, Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Culture, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, alexandrabalash@gmail.com

“The Metabolic Museum” by Clementine Delisse is regarded as one of the most influential museological studies of the last decade, guiding the museum’s current development and diversification strategy. Its significance is due to the combination of conceptual and practical developments related to the transformation of the Museum of World Cultures (Weltkulturen Museum) in Frankfurt am Main. Delisse’s research models not only the post-colonial development of ethnographic museums and their collections, but also the new operating principles for contemporary museums in general. The article examines the performative aspects of the concept of a “metabolic museum”, and analyzes the processing of the ideas of the actor-network theory into the concept of the agency of museum objects and museum collections. Museumlaboratory
and museum-university are considered as the most promising forms for modern
development. They present a consistent experience of remediation through interdisciplinary research and the integration of contemporary art as a media into the museum space. In this connection, it is necessary to develop a new museum architecture and infrastructure that will effectively solve the problems of cultural inclusion and the penetration of metamuseology into modern educational processes.
Key words: Clementine Delisse, ethnographic museum, museum, museum object, metabolic museum.

Serikova A.Yu. [Review of:] Kisić V. Governing Heritage Dissonance. Promises and Realities of Selected Cultural Policies. Belgrade: European Cultural Foundation (ECF), 2016. 328 p. ISBN/EAN 978–90–6282–069–6 — 160 (Rus.)

Serikova, Anastasia Yurievna — MA in Museology, PhD. Student, Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Culture, Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, serikova2020@mail.ru

The review analyzes the monograph “Governing Heritage Dissonance. Promises and Realities of Selected Cultural Policies” (2016) of Višnja Kisić, the researcher and teacher of the Center for Museology and Heritology at the University of Belgrade (Serbia). The book is devoted to the problem of managing the dissonance of heritage in the countries of South-Eastern Europe. The work, which won the Cultural Policy Research Award (2013) of European Cultural Foundation, includes nine chapters covering both the theoretical and conceptual aspects of heritage
dissonance and an analysis of four initiatives that work through the dissonance of heritage in practice. Studying changes in the understanding of dissonance in works on heritage and cultural memory, as well as international program documents, V. Kisić proposes the concept of “inclusive heritage discourse” as an alternative to “authorized heritage discourse” of Lorajane Smith. She also offers the concept of “heritage dissonance” instead of “dissonant heritage”, as coined by John Tunbridge and Gregory Ashworth. The dissonance of heritage is interpreted by V. Kisić as a latent quality inherent in any heritage, opening up space for discussion about the meanings and interpretations of heritage. It sets the framework for the current and future
heritage policy, interpretive and management practices. The author analyzes such initiatives as the process of serial nomination of medieval gravestones Stećaks for the UNESCO World Heritage List, the travelling exhibition titled “Imagining the Balkans: Identities and Memories in the Long 19th Century” etc. The author argues dissonance as an inherent quality of heritage, notes that it is not necessarily associated with wars and violence, and therefore can be included in broader social and cultural models of understanding and using heritage.

Key words: difficult heritage, dissonant heritage, dissonance, “Authorized Heritage Discourse”,“Inclusive Heritage Discourse”, museology, heritage.

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