Slepkova, Nadezhda Valentinovna — Candidate of Science in Biology, Senior Research Fellow, Russia, Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Nadezhda.Slepkova@zin.ru.
Changings of principles of exhibiting of the 300 years old collection in systematic zoology, which now belongs to the Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, are discussed. The collection sequentially was a part of three organizations, connected with each other: the Kunstkammer (1714–1832), the Zoological Museum (1832–1931) and the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1931 — present day). Essential changes in the views of taxonomists sooner or later became reflected in the placement of a systematic exhibition. Arrangement according Aristotle’s system, embodied in the first catalog of the Kunstkammer in 1742, was replaced on Linnaean system by the end of the 18th century. When Zoological collection of Kunstkammer moved to the Museum outhouse of the Academy of Sciences and became the separate institution (The Zoological Museum), its collection was arranged after the Cuvier’s system. The Department of Comparative anatomy was organized. The Cuvier’s system was replaced in 1930-ies with the evolutionary systems, reflected in the tutorial of V.A. Dogel, many times reissued, which revealed the achievements of comparative embryology (division into Proto- and Deuterostomia). Two revolutions in the Systematics of the late 20th and early 21st century, associated with the spreading of Cladistics and Molecular Phylogeny, make this order more and more obsolete.
Key words: Zoological Museum, Zoological Institute of RAS, the history of systematics, the history of exposition, Kunstkamera, Aristotle, Linney, Cuvier
Filimonov, Artem Egorovich — MA in Museology, Research Fellow, Russia, Russian National Library, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This paper makes an attempt to compare the representation of the American national identity in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York and United States National Museum of Washington, DC in the late XIX — early XX century. The research is based upon the multiple sources such as reports of the Boards of Trustees, the museums’ periodicals, catalogues and guides. Author reveals concepts and practices of creating of the American nation’s image in the following spheres of museum activity: collecting, popular education, exhibiting, personnel policy, and intercommunication with other fields and institutions (for example, the American art community). As a result, considerable differences between the two museum’s nation-building efforts were discovered. Metropolitan Museum’s of Art tendency was legitimizing the power of American elites and supporting the national economy. Nevertheless, it neither adapted any specific nationalistic discourse nor conducted the ethnic minorities’ exclusion. On the contrary, United States National Museum was disseminating the heroic historical narrative, colonialist attitude to the Native Americans, and militarism.
Key words: United States of America, museum, Metropolitan Museum of Art, United States National Museum, national identity, nationalism.
Zubanova, Nadezda Andreevna — Head of Department «Estate», Russia, The State Museum of Ceramics and the Kuskovo 18th Century Estate, Moscow, email@example.com.
The article considers the unknown pages of the history of the State Museum of Ceramics, connected with its foundation and the first years of its existence. The museum was opened in 1919 on the basis of the collections of the famous Moscow collector Alexei Vikulovich Morozov, who even before the 1917 revolution believed, following the example of other wellknown Moscow collectors, to create a museum of his name and present it to the city. After the revolution, Morozov stayed with his collections and later began to work in the museum as a curator. The porcelain museum is one of the first museums opened in the Soviet state. The unique collection of porcelain collected by A.V. Morozov became the core around which was created the unique museum, dedicated to one of the oldest forms of human activity — the history of ceramic production. For the first time, the article highlights such aspects of the museum’s activities as sources of museum acquisitions, the mode of operation, economic and exhibition activities, the “struggle” for expositional and stock areas, the “life” of the museum with a shortage of funding and the new economic policy of the Soviet state.
Key words: The State Museum of Ceramics, A.V. Morozov, collections, museum, gathering.
Ryazantsev, Nikolay Pavlovich — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor, Russia, Yaroslavl branch of Moscow State University of railway engineering, firstname.lastname@example.org; Salova, Yulia Gennadievna — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor, Russia, Yaroslavl State University named after P.G. Demidov, email@example.com.
The article discusses the formation of the legislation on Museum construction in Soviet Russia in the post-revolutionary years. In the Yaroslavl art gallery shows the process of creation and development of similar museums in the province. The features of the formation of Museum collections of the State Museum Fund and from local sources. Investigates changes in the state Museum policy for two decades. In detail, based on numerous archival sources, the authors trace the history of the creation of the art Museum in Yaroslavl, from idea to the actual opening of which in 1922 it took almost ten years. Illustrates the role of the famous Moscow-based experts and local historians to create a new Museum. Are numerous instances of highly professional work of Museum professionals to rescue art treasures in the years of civil war and destruction. Emphasized the principled position of Museum workers during the campaign on withdrawal of Church values. Shown repressions against the representatives of the Museum community in terms of the changed state policy in the 1920–1930-ies. The specifics of work in the initial phase of the formation and development of the art Museum in Yaroslavl.
Key words: museum legislation, state museum policy, the State Museum Fund, museum, collection.
Sidorova, Irina Borisovna — Candidate of Science in History, Associate Professor, Russia, Kazan Federal University, firstname.lastname@example.org.
On the basis of documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan it is shown that after the Revolution of 1917 and the Civil War in a small Volga town Sviyazhsk was established a museum situated in a monastery. This Museum contained works of fine and applied arts, antiquities, ethnographical objects, and species of natural history. By that time the Holy Assumption Monastery had been closed by the authorities. The cathedral of the XVI century had unique fresco paintings of that time. There was a kind of collaboration between specialists of the Kazan Department of Museums and Protection of monuments and works of arts and antiquities and a young high school teacher of mathematics Tatyana Ivanovna Arkharova, a graduate of the Petrograd Women’s Pedagogical Institute. She became Responsible of the Department and Head of the Sviyazhsk Museum. Thanks to her efforts the Museum became one of the best in the Tatar Republic, a recognized center of educational and local history work and a way of preserving cultural heritage. The article focuses on the role of the local administration that allotted minimal resources to the museum and later stopped financing it at all. The unbearable condition for the existence of the Museum were made a little later when a colony of adolescent offenders was placed in the same monastery and direct destruction of monuments started. The Head of the Museum had the only way out — to resign.
Key words: museum, monastery, churches, protection of cultural heritage, 1920th.
Liubeznikov, Oleg Anantolievich — Candidate of Science in History, Guide, Russia, Museum “St. Isaac Cathedral”, email@example.com.
The article is devoted to the architect Nicholas Nikitin (1884–1971), unfortunately forgotten now. After the Revolution 1917 N. Nikitin in 1919–1920 and 1926–1931 was an architect and restorer of St Isaac’s cathedral in Leningrad. During those years the church community (the parish) (so-called “dvadtsatka”) controlled the cathedral. But, this management was not effective — the architectural monument began to ruin. There was no heating in the cathedral. The dome and walls were wet, the paintings were moldy and flaked off. N. Nikitin became one of the most active supporters of the museumification of the cathedral. It was the only one possible form to save the wonderful architectural monument. The architect suggested to organize the historical and art museum, but in the Soviet Russia at the beginning of 1930s there was created the first antireligious museum in the cathedral. The museum received a historical profile only after World War II. By that time N. Nikitin had already published his monograph about the cathedral (1939) and was the most famous specialist in history of engineering and building of St Isaac’s cathedral. So, he was included in the group of restorers who had to repair the monument. At the end of his life N. Nikitin planned to reprint his monograph, but it wasn’t published again. In spite of this, Nikitin’s research, published in 1939, even now (78 years later) is the best text about the history of St Isaac’s cathedral and all excursions in the museum “St Isaac’s cathedral” are based on his book. Though Nicholas Nikitin can be called the founder of the museum, his name is forgotten. The article is the first biographical essay about him. The article is based on unpublished documents from 5 archives of St Petersburg. Many documents are introduced in the historical science for the first time.
Keywords: N. Nikitin, St Isaac’s cathedral, museumification, revolution, parish, 1917.
Mokina, Tatiana Mikhailovna — Candidate of Art History, Guide, Russia, Museum “St. Isaac Cathedral”, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article considers a little-known military page in the history of the Hermitage, when the museum received for its storages a building of the St. Sampson’s Cathedral. The Cathedral, located on the Vyborgskaja side of the city and laid at the behest of Peter the Great in honor of the victory of Poltava, had been in the pre-revolutionary history closely connected with the Imperial court, whose residence was in the Winter Palace. A century later, the history of the Cathedral was again united with the history of the Hermitage. The study materials of the Archive KGIOP allowed to illuminate the difficult war time period of the existence of the temple. For the first time, in this article is used a unique archive source, i. e. the diary of the inspector of the Leningrad Committee for state control, use and protection of monuments of history and culture A.O. Ostroumova. On the basis of first introduced into scientific use data of the diary it became possible to reconstruct the history of the Cathedral during the war period and to clarify the circumstances of the existence of the unique monument of Russian cult architecture of the XVIII century.
Key words: Blokada, Great Patriotic War, monument, storehouse, Hermitage, Cathedral of St. Sampsony.
Drozdova-Pichurina, Nadezhda Nikolaevna — Candidate of Art History, Expert for cultural values of Ministry of Culture, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, email@example.com; Sapanzha, Olga Sergeevna — Doctor of Cultural Studies, Professor, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Analysis of definitions, which are suitable to explore the historical evolution and the contemporary state of the spatial discourse between a museum and a city is in the focus of the paper. This discourse became important in the 20th century and represents not only the traditional forms of museum — city interaction but also the new forms based on the dialog and the opposition. Besides the definition of dialectics of spatial discourse as a method of exploring the contemporary spatial environment with taking in account all of its historical changed forms the article represents the typology of the spatial discourse based on the analysis of the main forms of communication as a process of dialog and/or denial between the museum and its environment in the city. There are five types of spatial discourse are analyzed in the article. The first one is the traditional discourse meaning that the museum and the metropolis are independent from each other. In opposite to the first one is the second type of the traditional discourse which is the model of conflict and means that the museum and the city are in conflict. The third type of the discourse is the model of inclusion which means that the museum goes out to the city environment and gets the positive reaction from the city. The fourth type of the spatial discourse is the model of the mono-discourse which means that the museum is the city-forming center or determines not only the features of the city area but its metaphysic as well. The fifth model of the discourse is the city «musealization» what means that the city tends to become the museum.
Key words: museology, museum, city, metropolis, museum area, city area, city environment, discourse, discourse of spaces.
Kepin, Dmitrij Vladimirovich — Candidate of Science in History, Junior Research Fellow, Ukraine, the National Museum of Natural History of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, dKepin@gmail.com.
This article examines the achievements of Ukrainian scientists in the study of natural-scientific museology in the context of the conservation of the geological heritage. The structure of natural-scientific museology is proposed. Natural-scientific museology is an interdisciplinary science. The classification of natural monuments and international documents dealing with legal issues in organization of “geoparks” are analyzed. Author proposes the definition of “the geological monument” (Geosite) and “geopark”. Author deals with typology of “geoparks”, designed in Ukraine. The specificity of speleo-arheological and archaeology-paleontological sites is shown. Geopark is defined as the open-air natural science museum. Promising is the development of geological museology and monumentology.
Key words: natural science of museology, geological museology, monumentology, “geopark”, geological monument, museum, museum-reserve.
Pudov, Gleb Aleksandrovich — Candidate of Art History, Senior Research Fellow, Russia, the Russian State Museum, Saint-Petersburg, email@example.com.
The great importance for the formation of the museum collections had collections of private individuals. Among well-known figures of art and science of the XIX — early XX century which was fond of collecting items of “Russian antiquity” was Nikolai Vladimirovich Sultanov. He was an outstanding architect, restorer and teacher, whose work was of great importance for the development of historicism in Russia. In his extensive collection, which he supplemented for many years, was copper icons, household utensils, copper crosses and icons, folk costume and gingerbread boards. But Nikolay Sultanov was not a passionate collector. He used these items in his professional activities. This article is devoted to gingerbread boards from the collection of Nikolay Sultanov. These items are now in The Department of Folk Art of the State Russian Museum. The author suggests that gingerbread boards were purchased in Nizhny Novgorod, either at the fair or from local photographer and artist Andrey Karelin, who had a huge collection of works of Russian folk art. The author proves also their origin from the city of Gorodets. He based on the analysis of the artistic and technical features of gingerbread boards. Gorodets is not far from Nizhny Novgorod. This is an indirect reference to the purchase of works Nikolay Sultanov in this city.
Key words: Nikolay Sultanov, museum collection, folk art, Andrey Karelin, gingerbread boards, historicism, Nizhny Novgorod.
Museology — Museum Studies
Andreeva, Irina Valerievna — Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Russia, Chelyabinsk State Institute of Culture, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Interdisciplinary relations of museology/museum studies with the disciplines of document communication cycle (library science, bibliography, bibliology, archival science, documentation studies) are obvious. However, a number of researchers consider museology among these disciplines, and believes that they have a common space of interaction at the level of methodology. This tradition dates back to the late nineteenth century, when Belgian researcher P. Otlet explained the necessity of science “book-archivo-museology”, and continues in the research of contemporary documentologists. They seek to impart the basic concept (document) — to the sphere of museology, although the first attempts to develop documentological approach in museology was undertaken in the 1970s and 1980s by professional museologists from Eastern European schools. These attempts did not continue, because in the following decades, the development of science was concerned with the development multiconceptual theories based on new philosophical and cultural foundations and standards of interdisciplinarity. International standard ISO 5127–2001 “Information and documentation” defines a document as any object with which you can get information, but only in the situation when it is included in the documentation process. Thus, the international standard includes in the number of documents three-dimensional objects too. Contemporary documentologists share the view of Yu.N. Stolyarov on the relativity of the document and the need to develop a term in each disciplinary area. In museology, the term “document” is used only at the level of everyday usage, whereas its development at the level of theoretical abstraction opens the prospect of applying a documentary concept to the development of problems, first of all, of a museum object.
Key words: museology, museum, documentology, interdisciplinary relations, document, museum object, museum document.
Bonami, Zinaida Amatusovna — Candidate of Science in Pedagogy, Museologist, Russia, Moscow, email@example.com.
The article reviles the link between the museum doctrine, elaborated by the Russian Philosopher-Cosmist Nickolay Fedorov (1829–1903), generally taken as utopian, with European museology of the XIX–XXth centuries. It establishes obvious textual conjunctions of his compositions with the writings of western authors and identifies Fedorov as a follower of the two traditional for the West genres: “museum skepticism” and “imaginary museum”. The summary of such extramural dialogue serves as a transcription method for more deep interpretation of the philosopher’s legacy. Moreover, it is an aid for comprehending the challenges the museum is facing in XXI century. It concerns the ambition of post-modernity, armed with the developed mass communication technologies, to deprive the museum of its adherence to the ancient temple. As well as the function it executed in the previous ages, i.e. of an educator, instructor, canons and values’ establisher. But could a museum in its present role of “an available site” or “a social media” be capable to carry out its principle mission of a collective memory keeper? The article has the purpose of stressing the importance of Fedorov’s texts as the unique asset of the national culture. To neglect such a heritage while comprehending the contemporary museum and projecting its future would be absolutely reprehensible.
Key words: Old (New) Museology, museum genesis, secularization of art, museum value, museum skepticism, the art of memory, imaginary museum, post-modernity, anthropocentric museum.
Kuklinova, Irina Anatolievna — Candidate of Science in Cultural Studies, Associate Professor, Russia, Saint-Petersburg State University of Culture, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The article characterizes the appreciation of the French-speaking new museology as a special system of views. It emphasizes its close relationship with the ideas of the 1960–1970th about the social role of museums and the birth of new types of museums. The emphasis is on the analysis of the works of the following museologists: Fr. Mairesse, B. Deloche and T. Šola. Particular attention is paid to their work in recent years and the relationship between the evaluation of the new museology and the general system of views of each of the museologists. Fr. Mairesse, describing the new museology as a revolutionary utopia, analyzes the fate of new types of museums and assesses the influence of this system of views on the traditional museum. B. Deloche considers the traditional museum as a manifestation of uchronie, which is defined as an artificially created place outside of time. New museology offers various ways to make the museum look like it is adapted to the modern world. Among them are ecomuseums and museums of civilizations. The new theory had an impact on the traditional art museum, expanding the range of topics of interest to it. T. Šola develops the problem of transforming museology into a new science of heritage. He considers ecomuseums as heritage institute, which is the most appropriate to the needs of modern society, which goes beyond the traditional museum.
Keywords: nouvelle muséologie, ecomuseum, heritage, community, social role of museums.
A Problem in Focus: Museum Exhibition
Ronchi, Alfredo M. — Full Professor, Italy, Politecnico di Milano, Secretary EC MEDICI Framework Foundation, email@example.com.
The present paper will outline some of the most relevant innovations and events related to the history of Museums. Starting from the basics, the reader will be introduced to issues and achievements associated with virtual museums, cataloguing, digitising, publishing, and the sustainable exploitation of cultural content, relevant case study. Drawing upon the many (over twenty-five) years of experience and achievements in digital cultural content, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the issues and achievements associated with digital collections and cultural content. Within the document we will get close to some fundamental questions. Do virtual museums really provide added value to end-users? Are museums, content providers and users ready and willing to use new technologies to explore cultural heritage? Do ICT tools really help content holders and/or end-users? Shall we now try to provide some answers? Have we mastered the general framework? Is the necessary technological framework already in place? The duty to reply to such questions is left to the reader on the basis of the reading.
Key words: eCulture, Cultural Heritage, Virtual Museums, Digital clones.
Bezzubova, Olga Vladimirovna — Candidate of Science in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Russia, Saint-Petersburg Mining University, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Taking as an example the Jewish Museum in Berlin the article considers the transformation of the museum space function, which has taken place in the late twentieth century. According to the tendencies conceptualized by the so called “new museology” the museum space increasingly becomes independent value along with the emphasis putted to the emotional component of perceiving. Appeal to the visitor’s emotional experience signifies the rupture with the didactic model of museum, which was mainly oriented on the translation of scientific knowledge. Also, various methods enabling to cause visitors intense feeling are often used in the case concerning the tragic moments of the past. That makes possible to correspond the new function of the museum space with the problem of historical memory and its translation in the contemporary society. The traditional means of exposition are not always capable to represent the past adequately, especially in the cases which are understood as unrepresentable. The search for new ways becomes an important task under such condition. This article considers a number of theoretical statements in new museology, which enables to explain the proceeding changes and to point out some discussion issues.
Key words: museum, museum space, affect, history, memory, exhibition.
Abroskina, Evgenia Vyacheslavovna — MA in Museology, Research Fellow, Russia, the Russian museum of ethnography, Saint-Petersburg, email@example.com.
The article considers the theme of formation and development of methods for creating an exposition in the Russian museum of ethnography during the Soviet period. The main focus of the research is aimed at two key figures of the time — B. Kryzhanovsky and A. Bezhkovich, museum researches, who formed the basic principles of creating an ethnographic exposition. The concepts proposed by them formed the basis for the construction of exhibitions both in the Ethnographic Museum itself and in the local historic and ethnographic museums of the USSR. The author identified and analyzed the main problem topics that are exciting Kryzhanovskiy and Bezhkovich: the problem of creating an exposition plan, the definition of the object of presentation and the criteria for selecting museum items for exposition, the issue of the artistic design of the exposition, the phenomenon of bringing “life” into the ethnographic exposition, etc. Texts, written by the mentioned researchers with a difference of more than thirty years, formed the basis of this article, due to their analysis, it was possible to reconstruct the dynamics of the development the processes of transformation of certain ideas, as well as the rejection of a number of older ideas in the context of political and scientific changes.
Key words: the Russian museum of ethnography, exposition, exposure technique, B. Kryzhanovsky, A. Bezhkovich.
Prischepova, Valeria Alexandrovna — Candidate of Science in History, Senior Research Fellow, Russia, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (the Kunstkamera) of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article considers two exhibitions of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (The Kunstkamera) in Kazakhstan and Germany. By means of unique ethnographic sources of the museum’s collection of household objects and photographs were presented two models of the nomadic life of steppe pastoralists, Kazakhs of XIX–XX centuries and semi-nomads and nomads of Iranian Baluchi, Hazaras and Jamshidi people in the end of the 1920s, shortly after their relocation to Turkmenistan from Afghanistan. In the Illustrations’ Department of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography are stored historical photographs of these Central Asian nomads dated 1928–1929. The photographs on the collection document nearly all areas of life of these peoples during the years. Since that time, the world politics and economics have greatly changed their existence. A retrospective look at the nomadic life as a normal and everyday way of being, that might look primitive from the contemporary point of view, helps to understand these life forms. The collections of the museum help the public to comprehend contradictions of social development in Central Asia. Museum exhibits can become a fullfledged scientific source, along with involvement of other literary and archival sources, for the study of the history of collections and collecting activities of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography.
Key words: museum, exhibition, exposition, Kazakhs, Baluchi, Jamshidi, Hazara culture.
Usova I.A. The Costume of the Nomads of Central Asia and its Borderlands of the I Thousand B.C. in the Museum Exposition as an Interpretation Tool of the Past (on the Materials of Burial Mounds in Altai, Tuva, Kazakhstan) — 184 (Rus.)
Usova, Irina Alexandrovna — Candidate of Science in History, Head of the department of commercialization of science research and organization of congress activities, Russia, Saint- Petersburg University of Management Technologies and Economics, email@example.com.
Costume as an element of material culture can act as a visual interpretation tool of t ancient history in exposition and exhibition activities of museums. Special attention is paid to the methods of studying the Central Asian ancient nomad costume. Some articles devoted to the problems of using methods of natural sciences to research the costume wore by nomadic societies in Late Antiquity appear in scientific publications. Special attention is paid to preservation, restoration and reconstruction in studying pieces of clothes from burials. New complex approach in studying the costume wore by nomadic societies emerged. This resulted in establishing a number of specific features of ancient peoples clothes. In modern researches origina reconstructions of costumes belong to people inhabited the Central Asia in the Antiquity and in the Middle Ages are presented using archaeological, written and visual sources. Scientific reconstruction of the «archeological» costume contributes to the development of cognitive interest among the visitors and the formation of a holistic view of the past.
Key words: museum, costume, reconstruction, exposition, Central Asia, archeology.
Taghiyeva, Roya Seyfeddin-qizi — Doctor of Art History, Professor, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan State University of Culture and Arts, Baku, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Azerbaijan Carpet Museum was opened in Baku in 1967. The museum has the largest valuable collection of the Azerbaijani carpets, which are an important part of the national heritage. The carpet is undoubtedly one of the most important attributes of human civilization. In the Museum all art, technical, regional variety of the Azerbaijani in close relationship with other subjects of the traditional way of life is represented carpet in the world cultural context. The museum’s activities aimed at preservation, study and education, today presents new approaches in the interpretation of historical and cultural heritage, its inclusion in modern culture in a context oriented to serving the society. The main concept of the exposition in the new building of the museum, opened in August 2014, reflecting this trend, was the communicative nature, the orientation towards the visitor (public). The main criteria that guide the museum are professionalism, innovation and social efficiency. Versatile activity of the museum is also the organization of the internal space, in particular, the structure of its new exposition in the new building.
Key words: carpets, museum exposition, Azerbaijan Carpet Museum, carpet products, carpet making centers, modern art.
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